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Artvin, Turkey

Gokturk T.,Artvin Coruh University | Aksu Y.,Forest Protection
African Journal of Agricultural Research

In the forested lands of Georgia Kazbegi National Park, some kinds of insects have been significantly harming the bark beetle of trees as their population increases. The most harmful species within the 100 ha area of the national park, where Pinus sylvestris L. var. hamata (Steven) (Scots Pine) trees settle have been identified as Tomicus piniperda (L.) and Tomicus minor (Hartig) using bio-technic method (pheromone traps), has been implemented against them. The damages of T. piniperda and T. minor were measured from all the Scots Pine in Kazbegi National Park in 2008. One of the newly developed control methods used in the field with intensive T. piniperda and T. minor populations is the bio-technic method. Prepared pheromone traps were hung up on trees located in various places and captured insects were counted and the results recorded in 2008. T. piniperda and T. minor trapped in pheromone traps, hung from the pines of the Scots Pine outbreak area were significantly greater in study area (109.5±2.1 and 118.2±1.8 beetle/trap, both species respectively). © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Pacheco A.P.,INESC Porto | Claro J.,INESC Porto | Oliveira T.,Forest Protection
Canadian Journal of Forest Research

Rekindles and false alarms are phenomena that have a significant presence in the Portuguese forest fire management system and an important impact on suppression resources in particular and fire management resources in general. In this paper, we propose a discrete-event simulation model of a forest fire suppression system designed to analyze the joint impact of ignitions, rekindles, and false alarms on the performance of the system. The model is applied to a case study of the district of Porto, Portugal, for the critical period of the forest fire season, between July and September 2010. We study the behavior of the system's point of collapse, comparing the real base scenario with a benchmark scenario built with reference values for rekindles and false alarms, and also as a function of the number of fire incidents, considering historical variations. The results of the analysis are useful for operational decision-making and provide relevant information on the trade-off between prevention and suppression efforts. Source

Pacheco A.P.,INESC Porto | Claro J.,INESC Porto | Fernandes P.M.,Royal University | de Neufville R.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management

Wildfire management has been struggling in recent years with escalating devastation, expenditures, and complexity. Given the copious factors involved and the complexity of their interactions, uncertainty in the outcomes is a prominent feature of wildfire management strategies, at both policy and operational levels. Improvements in risk handling and in risk-based decision support tools have therefore a key role in addressing these challenges. In this paper, we review key systems created to support wildfire management decision-making at different levels and scales, and describe their evolution from an initial focus on landscape-level fire growth simulation and burn probability assessment, to the incorporation of exposure and economic loss potential (allowing the translation of ignition likelihood, fire environment - terrain, fuels, and weather - and suppression efficacy into potential fire effects), the integration with forest management and planning, and more recently, to developments in the assessment of values at risk, including real-time assessment. This evolution is linked to a progressive widening of the scope of usage of these systems, from an initial more limited application to risk assessment, to the subsequent inclusion of functionality enabling their utilization in the context of risk management, and more recently, to their explicit casting in the broader societal context of risks and decisions, from a risk governance perspective. This joint evolution can be seen as the result of a simultaneous pull from methodological progresses in risk handling, and push from technological progress in wildfire management decision support tools, as well as more broadly in computational power. We identify the key benefits and challenges in the development and adoption of these systems, as well as future plausible research trends. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

"The Ministry of Environment and Forestry is focused on protecting the Tapir, along with 25 other endangered species in Indonesia, due to their endangered status. Our efforts are largely around conserving their habitat so that their numbers can recover," Ir . Bambang Dahono Adji , MM , Director of Biodiversity Conservation, Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), the Republic of Indonesia (RI). Dr. Ir. Tachrir Fathoni, MSc, Directorate General of Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystem, MoEF-RI asserted, "We need to build a special forum to develop a protection strategy for tapir, including creating a Sanctuary to protect this important species." In total, the study recorded and identified an impressive 29 species in the national park. Cameras were placed for over 30 days in the dry season and significantly documented five endangered species–the Sumatran tiger, the Sunda pangolin, the Asiatic wild dog, the Sumatran clouded leopard, and the Malayan tapir. This also included four of the five Sumatran wild cat species, the endemic Bronze-tail peacock pheasant and Salvadori's pheasant. These results further support the listing of over 60% of the park as an internationally recognized Key Biodiversity Area showcasing its global value and need for careful and effective management. Ketut Sarjana Putra, Vice President of CI Indonesia (CI) said, "This study has proven that the Batang Gadis National Park is an important haven for some of Indonesia's most unique animals and we hope it will further motivate all stakeholders to take great care of this highly important area." Mr Putra also noted the essential role of the national park to the livelihoods of the local communities, "Among other important services nature provides, this park ensures fresh water flows for agriculture which is the main income source for 80% of the local people making its protection key to local wellbeing." These findings follow the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between Conservation International on October 8, 2014 and the BNGP authorities to work together to better protect the area. This landmark agreement aims to strengthen training and facilitate capacity building activities that improve the skill set of those managing the protected area. Bambang Harianto, the Head of BGNP stated, "Irresponsible behavior such as logging, hunting of animals, and forest fires have caused the decline of endangered fauna in North Sumatra. Our collaboration with CI is the capacity building part - for example the SMART (spatial monitoring and reporting tool) patrol program where our rangers and field management trained to conduct join patrols in supervising the national park, as well as collect data." Mr Putra said, "In addition to providing accurate data on biodiversity trends through such studies, we want to support the local governments in Mandailing Natal to encourage communities to maintain and protect the existence of endangered species in the region. For example, perhaps the endangered tapir could become an icon of the district to highlight it's significant biodiversity value. Further, through our Sustainable Landscapes Program, we have educated local farmers on how to farm efficiently and sustainably, so their productivity improves and the remaining forests can endure. We encourage them to understand the broader environment, and the importance of the national park to their own quality of life." Since the signing of the MOU, CI has worked closely with the BGNP through the Sustainable Landscapes Partnership program. This effort has built the capacity of forest rangers, and supported management of the national park. The facilitations include data collection and its transfer to a database through technical tools for monitoring and reporting, the use of mobile technology, and engagement with stakeholders so they are aware and onboard with this work. Malayan tapir, the only tapir native to Asia, has distinctive black and white coloring. Like the other types of tapir, they have small, stubby tails and long, flexible elongated snouts. In Indonesia tapir can only be found on Sumatra Island. Habitat loss due to deforestation and poaching are their greatest threat despite the animals is legally protected by the State through Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999. Because of the serious threat of extinction, the tapir has been included in Appendix 1 of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). Since 2002 IUCN Red List has included Malayan tapir (Tapiricus indicus) in the category of 'endangered' because the amount has decreased by almost 50% in across its range and is predicted to halve again within the next 30 years if the current threats continue. Globally, there are four species of tapir, all vulnerable or endangered) inhabiting South America, Central America, and Southeastern Asia. The SLP is an integrated landscape initiative that works with local governments, communities, businesses and NGOs to design and develop innovative, landscape-scale solutions to challenges caused by human pressures on natural resources. Conservation International established SLP in Indonesia to promote and support this model through four primary areas of intervention: conservation of natural capital; developing sustainable production; improving governance and participation; and sustainable financing that aim to provide a range of benefits to people.

Hu J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Tian G.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Lin C.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Song C.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 6 more authors.
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica

To identify the tRNA-ipt gene of phytoplasmas and analyze the relationship between tRNA-ipt and synthesis of cytokinin as well as pathogenesis in phytoplasmas. The paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma (PaWB) tRNA-ipt gene was expressed in E. coli and specific antibody was prepared. Then the growth curve and cytokinin contents of E. coli with PaWB tRNA-ipt were measured by photodensitometry and ELISA respectively. The length of tRNA-ipt genes from PaWB as well as mulberry dwarf, periwinkle virescence and Chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasmas were 876 bp. All these genes encoded the proteins consisting of 291 amino acids. They contained and indentical motif (GPTASGKT) at N-terminal region related to the ATP or GTP binding sites. Four phytoplasma tRNA-IPTs shared the 99.1-99.5%, amino acid sequence indentity with each other, shared 95.4-99.3% sequence identity with the same group phytoplasmas, whereas the less than 70% identity with 16SrX apple proliferation and 16SrXII Australia grapevine yellows phytoplasmas. The expression of the tRNA-IPT protein and localization in the phloem in phytoplasma-infected paulownia were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence detection. The determination of growth curve suggested that the growth rate increase of E. coli was affected by the transformation of exogenous tRNA-ipt gene,which might be associated with the cytokinin accumulation. This protein was assumed to be involved in the cytokinin synthesis in phytoplasmas as well as other bacteria, which may play an important role in pathogenic processes of phytoplasmas and symptom development. Source

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