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Suhasman S.,Hasanuddin University | Hadi Y.S.,University of Indonesia | Massijaya M.Y.,University of Indonesia | Santoso A.,Forest Products Research Institute
Forest Products Journal | Year: 2012

Three particleboard types, including urea-formaldehyde (UF), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), and binderless, were made from three wood species, sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria), gmelina (Gmelina arborea), and mindi (Melia azedarach). Wood particle sizes of 10 to 20 mesh were manufactured for the 30 by 30 by 0.7-cm (length by width by thickness) boards, with 0.75 g/cm3 as the density target. Binderless particleboards were made through particle activation with hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate as the catalyst, and the boards were hot pressed at 1808C for 12 minutes. For the purpose of comparison, conventional particleboards were made with UF and MF, with the resin level at 10 percent and the boards hot pressed at 1208C for 7 minutes. All particleboards were conditioned for 8 months prior to testing against the subterranean termite (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren) in laboratory and field tests, and against the dry wood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light) in laboratory tests. Results showed that wood species affected particleboard resistance in both of the subterranean termite tests and that the type of particleboard affected board resistance in field tests. Particleboard from sengon wood had the lowest resistance in both tests, followed by from gmelina and mindi woods, and particleboards with UF and MF resins had better resistance than binderless particleboard in field tests. Particleboard type and wood species did not affect board resistance to dry wood termite attack. © Forest Products Society 2012. Source

Goto S.,Rutgers University | Park B.-J.,Chiba University | Tsunetsugu Y.,Forest Products Research Institute | Herrup K.,Rutgers University | Miyazaki Y.,Chiba University
Health Environments Research and Design Journal | Year: 2013

Objective: The objective of this study is to trace short-term changes in mood and heart function in elderly individuals in response to exposure to different landscaped spaces. Background: Nineteen elderly but cognitively intact residents of an assisted living facility participated in the study. They were exposed to three landscaped spaces: a Japanese style garden, an herb garden, and a simple landscaped area planted with a single tree. Methods: To assess the effect of different landscaped spaces on older adults, individuals were monitored for mood and cardiac function in response to short exposures to spaces. Mood state was assessed using Profile of Mood States (POMS) before and after viewing the spaces. Cardiac output was assessed using a portable electrocardiograph monitor before and during the viewing. Results: We found that the structured gardens evoked greater responses in all outcome measures. Scores on the POMS improved after observation of the two organized gardens compared to responses to the simple landscaped space with a single tree. During the observation period, heart rate was significantly lower in the Japanese garden than in the other environments, and sympathetic function was significantly lower as well. Conclusions: We conclude that exposure to organized gardens can affect both the mood and cardiac physiology of elderly individuals. Our data further suggest that these effects can differ depending on the types of landscape to which an individual is exposed. Source

Hadi Y.S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Nurhayati T.,Forest Products Research Institute | Jasni,Forest Products Research Institute | Yamamoto H.,Nagoya University | Kamiya N.,Lumber Business Consultant
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2012

Specimens from Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria), Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), and Pulai (Alstonia sp.) trees were exposed for 3, 8, or 15 days to the smoke generated during Mangium wood (Acacia mangium) pyrolysis, and their resistance to termite biodeterioration was compared to that of polystyrene-treated or untreated woods. All treated-wood specimens were exposed to subterranean termites (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren) and dry-wood termites (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that: (1) All three untreated woods were classified as class V (or very poorly resistant) to subterranean termite attack. On the other hand untreated-wood specimens of Pulai and Sugi tree were classified as class IV (or poorly resistant) and specimens of Sengon tree as class III (or moderately resistant) to dry-wood termites, based on the national Indonesian standard; (2) for all three wood species, 3-day exposure to Mangium wood smoke increased their resistance to class I (or very resistant) to subterranean termite attack; and (3) smoke treatment for 3 days for Sengon and Pulai wood specimens, and 15 days for Sugi wood specimens was required to increase their resistance to dry-wood termite attack to class I, which is the resistance level characterizing polystyrene-treated woods for all three species. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Santoso A.,Forest Products Research Institute | Hadi Y.S.,University of Indonesia | Malik J.,Forest Products Research Institute
Forest Products Journal | Year: 2014

Polyphenol chemical components extracted from merbau (Intsia spp.) wood exhibit a strong affinity for resorcinol and formaldehyde in alkaline conditions, forming a copolymer that could serve as an adhesive. A liquid extract of merbau wood (M) was allowed to copolymerize with resorcinol (R) and formaldehyde (F) under alkaline conditions, with an M:R:F weight ratio of 100:5:10. The course of the reaction and potential mechanisms of copolymerization were scrutinized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. The adhesive was used to manufacture three-ply composite flooring consisting of a back layer of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), a core layer from sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) wood, and a face layer with one of seven wood species, namely, sengon, sungkai (Peronema canescens), mangium (Acacia mangium), rubberwood, mahogany (Swietenia spp.), kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), and merbau. The adhesive was spread on the face and back layers of 170 g/m2 single glue line, which was followed by pressing at 11 kg/cm2 for 3 hours at room temperature. After conditioning for 10 days, the resulting composite flooring was examined to assess its physical and mechanical properties, shear strength, and formaldehyde emission. Results revealed that the bioadhesive exhibited crystallinity of 23.32 percent and a melting glass transition of 115.31°C. IV-meter intrinsic viscosity tools were used to determine the product's molecular weight of 49,658. Physical mechanical properties and shear quality of the composite flooring were similar to products that use synthetic phenolic adhesive and belong to the exterior quality type with E0 or F∗∗∗∗types of low formaldehyde emission. © Forest Products Society 2014. Source

Hadi Y.S.,University of Indonesia | Nurhayati T.,Forest Products Research Institute | Jasni J.,Forest Products Research Institute | Yamamoto H.,Nagoya University | Kamiya N.,Massiki Lumber Co.
Forest Products Journal | Year: 2010

Mindi wood (Melia azedarach) and sugi wood (Cryptomeria japonica) were smoked for 15 days using mangium wood (Acacia mangium), and for comparison purposes, wood preserved with 5 percent borax, polystyrened wood, and untreated control wood were prepared. All of the wood specimens were tested for resistance to (1) subterranean termites (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren) in the laboratory, (2) dry wood termites (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light) in the laboratory, and (3) subterranean termites in the field or via in-ground tests. The results showed that (1) mindi wood was more resistant than sugi wood to subterranean termite and dry wood termite attacks; (2) with regard to the Indonesian termite test standard, smoke treatment increased wood resistance to termite attacks, matching the highest resistance class of subterranean termites and dry wood termites; and (3) mindi wood offered equal resistance compared with polystyrened wood and wood preserved with borax, but in terms of the in-ground test, the smoke treatment did not affect wood resistance to termite attack, presumably because of leaching that occurred during the exposure test. © Forest Products Society 2010. Source

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