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Sun J.,Beijing Forestry University | Yang H.,Tsinghua University | Zhang T.,Beijing Forestry University | Cao C.,Forest Pest control and Quarantine Station of Ningxia | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

In plants attacked by insects, metabolic changes can reflect the direct and indirect ability of those plants to resist infestation. However, the metabolic pathways involved in this process remain unclear, especially for plants which belong to ancient Tertiary relict taxon. To analyze the changes in metabolites and identify specific metabolic patterns induced by herbivorous and continuous mechanical wounding, the metabolism of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings damaged by Orgyia ericae Germar or continuous mechanical wounding were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal signal correction projections to latent structure discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that O. ericae feeding and mechanical wounding induced different changes in the metabolic profile of A. mongolicus both in local and systemic leaves. O. ericae feeding was associated with higher concentrations of many primary and secondary metabolites in local and systemic leaves than continuous mechanical wounding. In this way, the response of A. mongolicus to wounding was shown to be both specific to the metabolism, systemic, and to involve both primary and secondary metabolic pathways. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Sun J.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang X.,Beijing Forestry University | Cao C.,Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Station of Ningxia | Mei X.,Beijing Forestry University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are important compounds to prim neighboring undamaged plants; however, the mechanism for this priming process remains unclear. To reveal metabolic changes in plants exposed to HIPVs, metabolism of leaves and roots of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings exposed to HIPVs released from conspecific plants infested with larvae of Orgyia ericae were analyzed together with control and infested seedlings using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic technology and multi variate data analysis. Results presented showed that HIPVs exposure led to similar but specific metabolic changes compared with those induced by infestation in both leaves and roots. Furthermore, both HIPVs exposure and herbivore attack resulted in metabolic changes involving a series of primary and secondary metabolites in both leaves and roots. Taken together, these results suggested that priming of yet-damaged plants may be achieved by reconfiguring metabolic pathways in leaves and roots to make similar concentrations for all metabolites as those in seedlings infested. Therefore, we propose that improved readiness of defense induction of primed plants toward subsequent herbivore attack may be based on the similar metabolic profiling induced by HIPVs exposure as those caused by herbivore. © 2014 Sun et al.


PubMed | Tsinghua University, Beijing Forestry University and Forest Pest control and Quarantine Station of Ningxia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are important compounds to prim neighboring undamaged plants; however, the mechanism for this priming process remains unclear. To reveal metabolic changes in plants exposed to HIPVs, metabolism of leaves and roots of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings exposed to HIPVs released from conspecific plants infested with larvae of Orgyia ericae were analyzed together with control and infested seedlings using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic technology and multi variate data analysis. Results presented showed that HIPVs exposure led to similar but specific metabolic changes compared with those induced by infestation in both leaves and roots. Furthermore, both HIPVs exposure and herbivore attack resulted in metabolic changes involving a series of primary and secondary metabolites in both leaves and roots. Taken together, these results suggested that priming of yet-damaged plants may be achieved by reconfiguring metabolic pathways in leaves and roots to make similar concentrations for all metabolites as those in seedlings infested. Therefore, we propose that improved readiness of defense induction of primed plants toward subsequent herbivore attack may be based on the similar metabolic profiling induced by HIPVs exposure as those caused by herbivore.


Zong S.-X.,Beijing Forestry University | Xie G.-L.,Yangtze University | Xie G.-L.,Hebei University | Wang W.-K.,Yangtze University | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The morphological and biological characteristics of the new species, Chlorophorus caragana sp. nov. from China, are described. This new species is a serious pest of Caragana korshinskii Kom. in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. A key to the Chlorophorus species that occur in northern China is presented. The type specimens are deposited in the En-tomological Museum of Yangtze University. © 2012 Magnolia Press.


Zhanga H.,Beijing Forestry University | Zong S.,Beijing Forestry University | Luo Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang T.,Mentougou Forestry Station | And 2 more authors.
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section C Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2013

Volatiles emitted by healthy Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) and plants infested with larvae of Sphenoptera sp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) or Holcocerus artemisiae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) were obtained using a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight major compounds were identifi ed, and qualitative and quantitative differences were compared. The novel green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen- 1-ol 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, the terpenoids α-copaene, β-cedrene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene, and the ester methyl salicylate were present in all infested plants. Volatiles from healthy plants were dominated by D-limonene (32.14%), β-pinene (16.63%), β-phellandrene (16.06%), and sabinene (12.88%). Volatiles from Sphenoptera sp. larvaeinfested plants were dominated by D-limonene (24.74%), β-pinene (21.05%), α-pinene (19.39%), and sabinene (11.64%), whereas volatiles from H. artemisiae larvae-infested plants were dominated by D-limonene (31.76%), sabinene (18.49%), ocimene (15.93%), and β-phellandrene (10.59%). In addition to the qualitative variation, a larvae-induced quantitative change in the proportion of terpenoids in the blends was also a noticeable feature. © 2013 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung.


Zong S.,Beijing Forestry University | Liu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Cao C.,Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Station of Ningxia | Luo Y.,Beijing Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section C Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2013

Chlorophorus caragana is an important wood-boring pest that infests Caragana korshinskii. The larvae bore into the stems to the point of hollowing them out, causing the whole tree to wither and even die. To control these infestations, volatile compounds were collected from C. korshinskii and used in electroantennography to ascertain which plant semiochemicals could be used to trap adult C. caragana in the field. Isophorone, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, 3-pentanone, dibutyl phthalate, and diisobutyl phthalate were the main volatile compounds produced by C. korshinskii. These compounds induced dose-dependent electrophysiological responses in the antennae of adult C. caragana to some degree. Accordingly, 58 different compound mixtures were tested in field trapping experiments over two consecutive years. Isophorone was most attractive to adult insects. In the field, the best traps were funnelshaped ones hanging at a height of 1 m. The trapping efficiency was 63.8%. Adult beetles appear between mid June and late August, with an eclosion peak in mid July. The prototype trapping system developed could be used as a tool to monitor and control C. caragana adults. © 2013 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen.


Liu X.-H.,Beijing Forestry University | Luo Y.-Q.,Beijing Forestry University | Cao C.-J.,Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Station of Ningxia | Zong S.-X.,Beijing Forestry University
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2012

Anoplistes halodendri halodendri (Pallas, 1776) and Anoplistes halodendri ephippium (Stevens and Dalman, 1817) are two subspecies of the longicorn beetle A. halodendri (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). In the recent years, these subspecies have been spreading rapidly in Hippophae rhamnoides and Hedysarum scoparium shrubberies in the Chinese provinces of Shanxi and Kingie, causing mass mortality of these shrubberies species and consequently leading to great damage to local ecological environment construction as well as high economic, ecological, and societal losses. To control their hazards effectively, here, we study and compare the types, densities, and distribution of antennal sensilla of A. h. halodendri and A. h. ephippium using scanning electron microscopy. Eight sensilla types were observed on the antennae of these two subspecies, including placoid sensilla (Ps), chaetica sensilla (ch) (types I-III), sensilla basiconica (b) (types I and II), sensilla gemmiformium (G), and auricillica sensilla (au). Ps predominated on the antennae of both A. h. halodendri and A. h. ephippium, followed by b and ch, and G and au. There were differences between the subspecies in the distribution and density of the different sensilla types, with ch I being found exclusively on the antennae of A. h. ephippium and b I and au on the antennae of A. h. halodendri only. With the exception of Ps, the densities of ch II, ch III, b II, and G on the antennae of A. h. halodendri were much higher than on the antennae of A. h. ephippium. These results provide sufficient evidence to clarify the receptive mechanisms used by these two subspecies of longicorn beetles and their responses to volatile semiochemicals released by their host plants as well as discuss their differences with respect to host and habitat selection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zong S.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang R.,Beijing Forestry University | Cao C.,Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Station of Ningxia | Wang T.,Mentougou Forestry Station | Luo Y.,Beijing Forestry University
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014

The amino acid, protein, carbohydrate, and mineral element contents and composition of the xylem, phloem, and leaves of healthy and insect-damaged Caragana korshinskii plants were analyzed to evaluate the changes in the nutrient content of C. korshinskii after damage by Chlorophorus caragana. The amino acid content decreased in the leaf and phloem but increased in the xylem in response to damage, while the protein content did not change in the leaf, increased in the xylem, and decreased in the phloem. The carbohydrate content increased slightly in the leaf but decreased in the xylem and phloem. The six mineral elements analyzed, namely, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, and iron decreased in the xylem, phloem, and leaf. The present results may provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying the effect of C. caragana on the loss of viability of C. korshinskii. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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