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Fang J.,Beijing Forestry University | Niu B.,Forest Pest and Disease Management and Quarantine Station of Gansu Province | Luo Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Du P.,Forest Pest and Disease Management and Quarantine Station of Gannan Autonomy State | Chen L.,Northwest University for Nationalities
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

An inventory of the high plateau region of South Gansu Province in China revealed 339 butterfly species belonging to 12 families and 157 genera. The majority of species (192; 56.6%) are widely distributed, while 91 species (26. 9%) are typical for the Palaearctic and further 56 (16. 5%) are Oriental species. 15 Parnassius species were recorded, which is a comparably large fraction (36. 6%) of all 41 Parnassius species in China. Transect inventories across the major altitudinal vegetation zones covering the alpine sub-ice-snow and sparse vegetation zone, sub-alpine shrub-meadow zone, mountain forest and grassland zone, and hilly grassland zone showed that Parnassius species appear in all zones. The vertical distribution of Parnassius species was Interesting because species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indicated contrary trends for Parnassius and total butterfly communities along the altitudinal gradient. While species richness and diversity oi Parnassius increased with altitude, these measures decreased for total butterfly communities. Yet, Parnassius can be considered as a typical genus for alpine regions in China. The most common species in the regions were P. imperator, P. epaphus and P. nomion. In the whole study area, eight species, including P. cephalus, were particularly rare and future viability of their populations might deserve particular attention. Source

Fang J.,Beijing Forestry University | Luo Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Niu B.,Forest Pest and Disease Management and Quarantine Station of Gansu Province | Tu A.,Forest Pest and Disease Management and Quarantine Station of Gansu Province | Zhao L.,Forest Pest and Disease Management and Quarantine Station of Gansu Province
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

We studied biological characteristics and habitat requirements of Parnassius imperator in Yagou, Yongjing County. We also analyzed population trend and key factors responsible for its fluctuation. Our research methods included for example transect survey, observation at sample plots, indoor breeding, etc. 1) P. imperator is an endemic species to China. It is univoltine in Yongjing County, and overwinters in egg stage on rocks nearby host plants Corydalis adunca (also endemic to China). Eggs hatch in mid-March the following year. The larvae stage includes 4 instars and last for 52 days. Duration of the larva period is from late March to late June. The pupae stage lasts about 47 days, and larvae pupate in early May. Adults emerge at the beginning of May and can fly fast. Peak quantity of adults ranges from mid-July to mid-August, however adults can still be found in late September. The egg stage lasts about eight months. 2) P. imperator is a dominant species in Yagou, Yongjing County. Adults like to stay and fly in valley with bare rocks and shrubs, larvae are found on sunny and semi-sunny slopes. Geographic distribution of P. imperator and its host plant C. adunca overlaps in China. This explains their close co-evolutionary relationship. 3) Two subspecies of P. imperator. P. imperator gigas Kotsch, occured in Yongjing county and P. imperator regulus (Bryk et Eisner) in Hezuo city. 4) Extremely abnormal climate, for example, Strong cooling, frost or snow, is the main factor that affects the population decline of P. imperator. Human disturbance is afnother threat affecting survival of P. imperator. 5) Conversation measures should focus on conservation of habitats of Parnassius sp., and reduction of human disturbance to support survival of the population in Yagou. We also stress the need for long term population monitoring and research on impact of climate chang and habitat loss. Source

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