Van Kleunen M.,University of Konstanz |
Dawson W.,University of Konstanz |
Essl F.,University of Vienna |
Pergl J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
And 44 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015
All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Strijk J.S.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden |
Sirimongkol S.,Forest Herbarium BKF |
Rueangruea S.,Forest Herbarium BKF |
Ritphet N.,Forest Herbarium BKF |
Chamchumroon V.,Forest Herbarium BKF
PhytoKeys | Year: 2014
A new species is described, Lithocarpus orbicarpus Strijk, collected from Ton Pariwat Wildlife Sanctuary, Mueang district, Phang Nga Province in the Peninsular Floristic Region of Thailand. We provide the first technical illustrations and colour photographs of the new species, as well as a description of its conservation status and the collecting locality. The species can be easily distinguished by its unique orbicular acorns, each covered with a dense pattern of irregularly placed scales, which completely conceal the nut, except for a tiny apical pore, and which are arranged in a dense cluster on an erect woody spike. We also provide an amendment to the existing diagnostic key to Lithocarpus, and discuss important differences with morphologically similar species found in Thailand and the surrounding region. © Joeri S. Strijk et al.