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Grzybowski M.,Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration | Szarek J.,Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration | Skibniewska K.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Guziur J.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Duriasz J.,Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration
Polish Journal of Natural Sciences | Year: 2010

The research was aimed at determining whether a pesticide tomb affects the ecological status of drainage ditches located in its vicinity as well as how it affects the diversity of the flora of the ditches and in which direction its effect on the surrounding environment is. In addition, the results of the study are a contribution to a comparative analysis of methods for macrophyte evaluation of watercourses used in Poland and to identify the possibilities of their application in investigations of artificial watercourses under the pressure of pesticides. Values of indices of the hydromorphological evaluation (HQA, HMS) were similar for all drainage ditches examined. This points to a negligible effect of the pesticide tomb on the hydromorphological characteristics of the analyzed watercourses. The pesticide tomb was found to affect the ecological status and floral diversity of the drainage ditches. The lowest values of macrophyte and diversity indices were recorded in the first and the second watercourse, whereas higher ones were in the third watercourse. Changes in the indices of ecological status and those of floral diversity observed in the watercourses examined show that the effect of the pesticide tomb on the surrounding ecosystem is consistent with topographic features and proceeds in a north-easterly direction. Both methods of the macrophyte evaluation of the ecological status of watercourses (MTR, MIR) yield different numeric values, yet their results are comparable in terms of the tendency of changes in the ecological status of the analyzed watercourses. In both methods, the highest rank was reported for the third watercourse. The MTR index diversifies the examined watercourses to a smaller extent than the MIR index. The MIR method is better under conditions of lowland Poland for the evaluation of the ecological status of artificial watercourses, as it enables stronger diversification of the ecological status of the watercourses examined due to a higher number of indicatory species.

Micinski J.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Zwierzchowski G.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Kowalski I.M.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Szarek J.,Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration | And 2 more authors.
Polish Annals of Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the nutritional value and health benefits of food products of animal origin. Numerous research studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of bovine milk, a key dietary component, on human health. Fat is one of the most important components in bovine milk, and its content ranges from 2.8% to 8.1%, subject to the breed of cattle, nutritional aspects, individual characteristics, lactation period, milk production hygiene and season. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the latest literature concerning the health effects of components found in bovine milk fat. Materials and methods: This paper is a literature review, and it analyzes the composition of bovine milk fat and its effects on human health. The available sources were grouped thematically, and an attempt was made to characterize various milk fat components and their effects on human health. Discussion: The unique nutritional value of bovine milk can be attributed to the presence of short-chain fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids which are important sources of energy for the muscles, heart, liver, kidneys, blood platelets and nervous system. They do not pose an obesity risk; they prevent ulcerative colitis, cancer, atherosclerosis and hypertension; they have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, and they boost natural immunity. Milk contains cholesterol, a lipid derivative which stabilizes and stiffens cell membranes, builds the cell cytoskeleton, protects nerve fibers and acts as a precursor of steroid hormones, bile acids and vitamin D3. Bovine milk lipids do not exert hypercholesterolemic or atherogenic effects in the human body. Conclusions: A growing tendency to replace animal fats, mainly milk fat, with vegetable fats is a matter of concern. © 2012 Warmiiisko-Mazurska Izba Lekarska w Olsztynie. Published by Elsevier Urban&Partner.

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