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Lambeth, United Kingdom

De Ceuster J.,Nationaal Instituut voor Criminalistiek en Criminologie | Hermsen R.,Nederlands Forensisch Instituut | Mastaglio M.,Forensic Science Service | Nennstiel R.,Bundeskriminalamt
Science and Justice | Year: 2012

The introduction of electronic systems into the comparison of weapon marks in the mid 1990s caused a revolution in the discipline of "forensic ballistics". Most European states now use this technology to search their national open case files. Globalisation of crime and the loss of effective border controls have made the idea of a unified European ballistic system seem logical. The article critically considers the requirements and possible outcomes of such a system. Based on the experience of forensic practitioners it seems probable that a shared European electronic ballistic system will be of a very limited value at present. Further improvements of existing systems to reach compatibility are encouraged. © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Source

Chatterton C.,Forensic Science Service | Kintz P.,X Pertise Consulting
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2014

Amitriptyline, temazepam, tramadol and dihydrocodeine are prescription-only-medications that are rarely prescribed to children. Each of these drugs has a sedative effect on the central nervous system; their combined use could cause an exacerbation of the sedative effects. Amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant) can be prescribed to treat nocturnal enuresis; temazepam (a hypnotic) can be used as a premedicant in inpatient and day-case surgery; tramadol (a synthetic opioid analgesic) is used to treat moderate or severe pain, though it is not recommended for children under the age of 12 years and dihydrocodeine (opioid analgesic), which is available in combination with acetaminophen (Co-dydramol®), is not recommended for children under the age of 4 years; in children over 4 years, a reduced dose is necessary. The North West Forensic Science Service Laboratory, Euxton, Lancashire, was asked by a British police force to analyze three separate hair samples, which had been collected from a young child following their discovery as a result of a large scale kidnap and false imprisonment investigation. After decontamination and segmentation (20 x 1-cm section), two of the three hair specimens were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after alkaline (pH 9.5) extraction using methylene chloride/isopropanol/n-heptane (25:10:65, v/v/v). The entire length of each hair specimen tested positive for amitriptyline and nortriptyline (7-314 pg/mg amitriptyline; 7-318 pg/mg nortriptyline), temazepam (2-29 pg/mg), tramadol (60-2000 pg/mg) and dihydrocodeine (10-90 pg/mg) demonstrating that the child had ingested these drugs on more than one occasion prior to the kidnap. In this case, the child's mother and the mothers' partner were found guilty of kidnap, false imprisonment and perverting the course of justice. There are very few studies citing the concentrations of these drugs in children - especially children's hair samples. This case demonstrates the added value of hair testing and emphasizes the importance of using hair samples to complement conventional analysis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved. Source

Irwin M.,Forensic Science Service
Science and Justice | Year: 2011

Experiments have been carried out to determine if and how many glass fragments are transferred onto upper garments following breakage of bottles and drinking glasses. In all instances glass was transferred. The numbers of transferred fragments after a bottle is broken ranges from three to twenty five. The numbers of fragments transferred following the breakage of a drinking glass ranges from three to approximately one hundred and twenty. On average three times the amount of glass is transferred following breakage of a drinking glass as compared to breakage of a bottle. © 2010 Forensic Science Society. Source

The National Firearms Forensic Intelligence Database (NFFID © Crown Copyright 2003-2008) was developed by The Forensic Science Service (FSS) as an investigative tool for collating and comparing information from items submitted to the FSS to provide intelligence reports for the police and relevant government agencies. The purpose of these intelligence reports was to highlight current firearm and ammunition trends and their distribution within the country. This study reviews all the trends that have been highlighted by NFFID between September 2003 and September 2008. A total of 8887 guns of all types have been submitted to the FSS over the last 5 years, where an average of 21% of annual submissions are converted weapons. The makes, models, and modes of conversion of these weapons are described in detail. The number of trends identified by NFFID shows that this has been a valuable tool in the analysis of firearms-related crime. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source

Evett I.W.,Forensic Science Service | Williams R.L.,9 Meon Road
Journal of Forensic Identification | Year: 2015

The fingerprint service of England and Wales works to the requirement that a fingerprint identification should be based on at least 16 points of comparison before evidence may be given in court. In 1988-89 the authors carried out a review of the need for this requirement. The review included: visits to bureaus in the U.K. and in various other countries; a study of the statistical aspects of fingerprint identification; a historical review; and a collaborative study in which fingerprint experts from many different bureaus at home and abroad examined ten sets of comparisons. This paper describes the conduct of the review and its conclusions. Source

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