Minneapolis, KS, United States
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Rohrig T.P.,Regional Forensic Science Center | Hicks C.A.,Regional Forensic Science Center
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2015

Brain tissue may be a valuable specimen in interpretation of postmortem toxicology. The protected and isolated position of the brain eliminates or at least attenuates many of the interpretive challenges with postmortem blood specimens. This study presents data for 30 drug and drug metabolites in cases submitted to the Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center for autopsy examination from 2007 to 2014. Drug concentration in heart and femoral blood is compared with the drug concentration in brain tissue. There is a positive correlation of blood to brain concentrations, thus providing another tool for the toxicologist or pathologist to utilize in case interpretation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.


Rohrig T.P.,Regional Forensic Science Center | Gamble M.,Regional Forensic Science Center | Cox K.,Regional Forensic Science Center
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Ketamine hydrochloride, a Schedule III drug under the Controlled Substances Act, is a dissociative anesthetic that has a combination of stimulant, depressant, hallucinogenic, and analgesic properties. This procedure utilizes solid phase extraction of blood, tissue, or urine samples to isolate ketamine (special K) and its metabolite norketamine. The extract is then assayed using selected ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for absolute structural confirmation of the compound and the compounds quantified by comparing responses of the unknown samples to the responses of standards.


Rohrig T.P.,Regional Forensic Science Center | Norton M.C.,Regional Forensic Science Center | Harryman L.A.,Regional Forensic Science Center
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Zopiclone is a nonbenzodiazapine hypnotic used for the treatment of insomnia. Significant side effects include daytime drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, bitter taste, dry mouth, headache, and upset stomach. A single method for confirmation and quantitation of zopiclone was developed for biological specimens and tissues. Zopiclone is extracted from the biological matrix using solid phase extraction technology. The drug is confirmed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for toxicological and forensic purposes.


Rohrig T.P.,Regional Forensic Science Center | Harryman L.A.,Regional Forensic Science Center | Norton M.C.,Regional Forensic Science Center
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Zolpidem is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic used for the treatment of insomnia. It works quickly and has a short half-life of 2-3 h. Significant side effects are reported including dizziness, amnesia, and even hallucinations. In this method, zolpidem is extracted from blood or other biological fluids/tissues using solid phase extraction technology for analysis. The extract is then assayed using selected ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for absolute confirmation of the compound. The quantitation of this drug is made from standard curves constructed using selected ion monitoring and peak-area ratios of analyte vs. internal standard of quantifying ions.


PubMed | Regional Forensic Science Center
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Ketamine hydrochloride, a Schedule III drug under the Controlled Substances Act, is a dissociative anesthetic that has a combination of stimulant, depressant, hallucinogenic, and analgesic properties. This procedure utilizes solid phase extraction of blood, tissue, or urine samples to isolate ketamine (special K) and its metabolite norketamine. The extract is then assayed using selected ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for absolute structural confirmation of the compound and the compounds quantified by comparing responses of the unknown samples to the responses of standards.


PubMed | Regional Forensic Science Center
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Zolpidem is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic used for the treatment of insomnia. It works quickly and has a short half-life of 2-3 h. Significant side effects are reported including dizziness, amnesia, and even hallucinations. In this method, zolpidem is extracted from blood or other biological fluids/tissues using solid phase extraction technology for analysis. The extract is then assayed using selected ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for absolute confirmation of the compound. The quantitation of this drug is made from standard curves constructed using selected ion monitoring and peak-area ratios of analyte vs. internal standard of quantifying ions.


PubMed | Regional Forensic Science Center
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Zopiclone is a nonbenzodiazapine hypnotic used for the treatment of insomnia. Significant side effects include daytime drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, bitter taste, dry mouth, headache, and upset stomach. A single method for confirmation and quantitation of zopiclone was developed for biological specimens and tissues. Zopiclone is extracted from the biological matrix using solid phase extraction technology. The drug is confirmed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for toxicological and forensic purposes.


PubMed | Regional Forensic Science Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of analytical toxicology | Year: 2015

Brain tissue may be a valuable specimen in interpretation of postmortem toxicology. The protected and isolated position of the brain eliminates or at least attenuates many of the interpretive challenges with postmortem blood specimens. This study presents data for 30 drug and drug metabolites in cases submitted to the Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center for autopsy examination from 2007 to 2014. Drug concentration in heart and femoral blood is compared with the drug concentration in brain tissue. There is a positive correlation of blood to brain concentrations, thus providing another tool for the toxicologist or pathologist to utilize in case interpretation.


PubMed | TERI University and Regional Forensic Science Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Forensic science review | Year: 2015

Zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon are commonly referred to as the Z-drugs. The Z-drugs are nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Since becoming widely prescribed as sleep aids in the United States, they are increasingly being detected in a variety of forensic specimens. We present a comprehensive overview of the basic chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, including their interaction with other prescription drugs and ethanol, findings in drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) casework, and methods of analysis.


PubMed | Regional Forensic Science Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Forensic science, medicine, and pathology | Year: 2015

Zolpidem (Ambien), a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Because it has become the most widely prescribed sleep aid in the United States, it is being increasingly detected in a variety of forensic specimens, and its interaction with other medications is being questioned. We present a comprehensive overview of the basic chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of zolpidem; its interaction with other prescription drugs; its effects on driving and motor skills; and its analysis and interpretation in forensic casework.

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