Kalamazoo, MI, United States
Kalamazoo, MI, United States

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Amaratunga P.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Thomas C.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Lemberg B.L.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Lemberg D.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Availability and consumption of synthetic cannabinoids have risen recently in the USA and Europe. These drugs have adverse effects, including acute psychosis and bizarre behavior. In 2012, the United States Drug Enforcement Agency permanently banned five of the synthetic cannabinoids and in 2013, temporarily added XLR11, UR-144 and AKB48 to Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. As synthetic cannabinoid strains are added to the Schedule I list, new strains are being introduced into the market. XLR11 and UR-144 are two of the most recent additions to the synthetic cannabinoid drug class. To test collected oral fluid samples for XLR11 and UR-144, we developed a bioanalytical method that initially purifies the sample with solid-phase extraction and then quantitatively identifies the drugs with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated according to United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines and Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology guidelines and the validation data showed that the method is an accurate, precise, robust and efficient method suited for high-throughput toxicological screening applications. We tested human subject samples with the developed method and found the presence of parent drugs (XLR11 and UR-144), their metabolites and their pyrolysis products in oral fluid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Amaratunga P.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Lemberg B.L.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Lemberg D.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Synthetic cathinones have recently emerged as a substitute for common drugs of abuse. Synthetic cathinones can elicit powerful adverse effects such as delusions, hallucinations and potentially dangerous behavior. To develop a method to analyze 10 synthetic cathinones in oral fluid, we implemented a combined approach of solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed analytical procedure was a sensitive, precise and selective method suited for high-throughput toxicological screening of synthetic cathinones. The method was validated using standard parameters including accuracy, precision, linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect and recovery. Human subject samples were analyzed using the developed method to demonstrate the applicability of the method. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Amaratunga P.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Clothier M.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Lemberg B.L.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories | Lemberg D.,Forensic Fluids Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Dextromethorphan (DXM) is an antitussive drug found in commonly used nonprescription cold and cough medications. At low doses, DXM is a safe drug that does not produce adverse reactions. However, abuse ofDXMhas been reported among adolescents and young adults using the drug at higher doses. DXM is not a scheduled drug in the USA, and the primary reason for its abuse is the ease of availability. DXM is available to purchase in the form of over-the-counter cough medications, such as Robitussin® and Coricidin®, or it can be purchased over the Internet in the form of a powder. In this research work, we developed an LC-MS-MS method that can quantify DXM and dextrorphan (DXO) in oral fluid in a high-throughput toxicology laboratory setting. The developed method was validated according to the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology guidelines. The linear dynamic range was 5-100 ng/mL with a lowest limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5.0 ng/mL for DXM and DXO. Overall, the results of the accuracy and the precision values were within the acceptance criteria for both drugs. In addition, selectivity, matrix effect and recovery were calculated for the LC-MS-MS method. Authentic samples (n = 59) were tested to evaluate the applicability of the method. Thirty samples were found to be positive for DXM and DXO and two samples were found to be positive for DXM only. © The Author 2016.


PubMed | Forensic Fluids Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of analytical toxicology | Year: 2016

Dextromethorphan (DXM) is an antitussive drug found in commonly used nonprescription cold and cough medications. At low doses, DXM is a safe drug that does not produce adverse reactions. However, abuse of DXM has been reported among adolescents and young adults using the drug at higher doses. DXM is not a scheduled drug in the USA, and the primary reason for its abuse is the ease of availability. DXM is available to purchase in the form of over-the-counter cough medications, such as Robitussin() and Coricidin(), or it can be purchased over the Internet in the form of a powder. In this research work, we developed an LC-MS-MS method that can quantify DXM and dextrorphan (DXO) in oral fluid in a high-throughput toxicology laboratory setting. The developed method was validated according to the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology guidelines. The linear dynamic range was 5-100 ng/mL with a lowest limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5.0 ng/mL for DXM and DXO. Overall, the results of the accuracy and the precision values were within the acceptance criteria for both drugs. In addition, selectivity, matrix effect and recovery were calculated for the LC-MS-MS method. Authentic samples (n = 59) were tested to evaluate the applicability of the method. Thirty samples were found to be positive for DXM and DXO and two samples were found to be positive for DXM only.


PubMed | Forensic Fluids Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of analytical toxicology | Year: 2013

Synthetic cathinones have recently emerged as a substitute for common drugs of abuse. Synthetic cathinones can elicit powerful adverse effects such as delusions, hallucinations and potentially dangerous behavior. To develop a method to analyze 10 synthetic cathinones in oral fluid, we implemented a combined approach of solid-phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed analytical procedure was a sensitive, precise and selective method suited for high-throughput toxicological screening of synthetic cathinones. The method was validated using standard parameters including accuracy, precision, linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect and recovery. Human subject samples were analyzed using the developed method to demonstrate the applicability of the method.

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