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Rouffach, France

Objective: To evaluate the feasability and the potential usefulness of functional MRI (fMRI) for the evaluation of brain functions after severe brain injury, when compared to a multimodal approach (evoked potentials [EP] and Positron Emission Tomography [PET] examinations). Material and methods: Seven patients (mean age: 49years [23-73], three males, four females) presenting with coma after acute severe brain injuries underwent fMRI (auditive, visual, somesthesic), 18F-FDG PET and EP (auditive, visual, somesthesic) within a 3-day period of time in a mean of 120 days after initial brain injury. fMRI activations in somesthesic, visual and auditive cortical areas were compared to EP (28 possible comparisons) and to the metabolic activity on PET examination in the same anatomical areas (21 possible comparisons). Results: In case of availability, results were concordant between fMRI and PET in 10 comparisons but not in one, and between fMRI and EP in 11 comparisons but not in four. Conclusions: In many patients, there is a good concordance between fMRI and brain functions suggested by EP and metabolic activity demonstrated with PET. In few others, fMRI can be integrated in the early evaluation of brain functions to further augment our capacity for a proper evaluation of brain functions in critically ill patients. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Paradiso R.,Smartex S.r.l. | Faetti T.,Smartex S.r.l. | Werner S.,FORENAP
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS

Wearable monitoring systems based on Smart Fibers and Interactive Textile (SFIT) platforms combine imperceptible sensing and computing functions with an interactive communication network. The integration into clothes of bio-potential sensors for health monitoring provides daily physiological parameters through a continuous, personalized, self-made detection of vital signs and the tracking of behavioral indicators of the subject. SFIT platforms can be used unobtrusively into the routinely daily activity to perform remote monitoring of persons in different circumstances and situations: during controlled exercises and diagnostic procedures as a biofeedback tool, during the usual daily life, during sleep or even to monitor behavioral indexes and mood disorders. Treatment of stress may include also training in cognitive-behavioral skills. Moreover, physiological signs and behavioral monitoring based on a multivariable approach leads to an enhanced sensitivity and specificity of these systems for the prediction of critical events. This paper presents two applications: a platform used in the frame of PSYCHE project, based on textile platforms and portable sensing devices for the long term and short term acquisition of data from patients affected by mood disorders and a platform addressing healthy subjects, based on biofeedback methodology, designed for the training of professional drivers named Mental Bio. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Tassi P.,University of Strasbourg | Saremi M.,University of Strasbourg | Schimchowitsch S.,University of Strasbourg | Eschenlauer A.,University of Strasbourg | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nocturnal railway noise on cardiovascular reactivity in young (25.8 ± 2.6 years) and middle-aged (52.2 ± 2.5 years) adults during sleep. Thirty-eight subjects slept three nights in the laboratory at 1-week interval. They were exposed to 48 randomized pass-bys of Freight, Passenger and Automotive trains either at an 8-h equivalent sound level of 40 dBA (Moderate) and 50 dBA (High) or at a silent Control night. Heart rate response (HRR), heart response amplitude (HRA), heart response latency (HRL) and finger pulse response (FPR), finger pulse amplitude (FPA) and finger pulse latency (FPL) were recorded to measure cardiovascular reactivity after each noise onset and for time-matched pseudo-noises in the control condition. Results show that Freight trains produced the highest cardiac response (increased HRR, HRA and HRL) compared to Passenger and Automotive. But the vascular response was similar whatever the type of train. Juniors exhibited an increased HRR and HRA as compared to seniors, but there was no age difference on vasoconstriction, except a shorter FPL in seniors. Noise level produced dose-dependent effects on all the cardiovascular indices. Sleep stage at noise occurrence was ineffective for cardiac response, but FPA was reduced when noise occurred during REM sleep. In conclusion, our study is in favor of an important impact of nocturnal railway noise on the cardiovascular system of sleeping subjects. In the limit of the samples studied, Freight trains are the most harmful, probably more because of their special length (duration) than because of their speed (rise time). © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

Vanello N.,University of Pisa | Guidi A.,University of Pisa | Gentili C.,University of Pisa | Werner S.,FORENAP | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS

Bipolar disorders are characterized by an unpredictable behavior, resulting in depressive, hypomanic or manic episodes alternating with euthymic states. A multi-parametric approach can be followed to estimate mood states by integrating information coming from different physiological signals and from the analysis of voice. In this work we propose an algorithm to estimate speech features from running speech with the aim of characterizing the mood state in bipolar patients. This algorithm is based on an automatic segmentation of speech signals to detect voiced segments, and on a spectral matching approach to estimate pitch and pitch changes. In particular average pitch, jitter and pitch standard deviation within each voiced segment, are estimated. The performances of the algorithm are evaluated on a speech database, which includes an electroglottographic signal. A preliminary analysis on subjects affected by bipolar disorders is performed and results are discussed. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Sanacora G.,Yale University | Smith M.A.,Astrazeneca | Pathak S.,Astrazeneca | Su H.-L.,Astrazeneca | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry

Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channel blocker, has been found to induce rapid and robust antidepressant-like effects in rodent models and in treatment-refractory depressed patients. However, the marked acute psychological side effects of ketamine complicate the interpretation of both preclinical and clinical data. Moreover, the lack of controlled data demonstrating the ability of ketamine to sustain the antidepressant response with repeated administration leaves the potential clinical utility of this class of drugs in question. Using quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to objectively align doses of a low-trapping NMDA channel blocker, AZD6765 (lanicemine), to that of ketamine, we demonstrate the potential for NMDA channel blockers to produce antidepressant efficacy without psychotomimetic and dissociative side effects. Furthermore, using placebo-controlled data, we show that the antidepressant response to NMDA channel blockers can be maintained with repeated and intermittent drug administration. Together, these data provide a path for the development of novel glutamatergic-based therapeutics for treatment-refractory mood disorders. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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