New York City, NY, United States

Fordham University
New York City, NY, United States

Fordham University is a private, nonprofit, coeducational research university based in New York City, United States. It was founded by the Catholic Diocese of New York in 1841 as St. John's College, placed in the care of the Society of Jesus shortly thereafter, and has since become an independent institution under a lay board of trustees, which describes the University as "in the Jesuit tradition."Fordham is composed of ten constituent colleges, four of which are for undergraduates and six of which are for postgraduates. It enrolls approximately 15,000 students across three campuses in New York State: Rose Hill in the Bronx, Lincoln Center in Manhattan, and Westchester in West Harrison. In addition to these campuses, the University maintains a study abroad center in the United Kingdom and field offices in Spain and South Africa. Fordham awards the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, and Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees, as well as various master's and doctoral degrees. The 2015 edition of U.S. News and World Report lists Fordham as a "more selective" national university and ranks it 58th in this category.Fordham Preparatory School, a four-year, all-male college preparatory school, was once integrated with the University and shares its founding. It became legally independent in 1972 and moved to its own facilities on the northwest corner of the Rose Hill campus; however, the school remains connected to the University in many ways. Wikipedia.

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Yip T.,Fordham University
Child Development | Year: 2014

The current study explores the intersection of ethnic identity development and significance in a sample of 354 diverse adolescents (mean age 14). Adolescents completed surveys five times a day for 1 week. Cluster analyses revealed four identity clusters: diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, and achieved. Achieved adolescents reported the highest levels of identity salience across situations, followed by moratorium adolescents. Achieved and moratorium adolescents also reported a positive association between identity salience and private regard. For foreclosed and achieved adolescents reporting low levels of centrality, identity salience was associated with lower private regard. For foreclosed and achieved adolescents reporting high levels of centrality, identity salience was associated with higher private regard. © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Franks S.J.,Fordham University | Hoffmann A.A.,University of Melbourne
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2012

The rapid rate of current global climate change is having strong effects on many species and, at least in some cases, is driving evolution, particularly when changes in conditions alter patterns of selection. Climate change thus provides an opportunity for the study of the genetic basis of adaptation. Such studies include a variety of observational and experimental approaches, such as sampling across clines, artificial evolution experiments, and resurrection studies. These approaches can be combined with a number of techniques in genetics and genomics, including association and mapping analyses, genome scans, and transcription profiling. Recent research has revealed a number of candidate genes potentially involved in climate change adaptation and has also illustrated that genetic regulatory networks and epigenetic effects may be particularly relevant for evolution driven by climate change. Although genetic and genomic data are rapidly accumulating, we still have much to learn about the genetic architecture of climate change adaptation. © 2012 by Annual Reviews.

Di Grandi M.J.,Fordham University
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2014

The Nazarov cyclization, a well-known method for the formation of cyclopentenones, mechanistically involves the 4π electrocyclization of a 1,4-pentadienyl cation, generated from cross-conjugated divinyl ketones. Recently, advances related to this cyclization, such as the incorporation of heteroatoms as well as the use of cyclopropanes as double bond equivalents have extended the scope of the original reaction. The modifications discussed in this review, which covers the years 2009-2013, have allowed the realization of both heteroatom- and homo-Nazarov cyclizations. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Franks S.J.,Fordham University
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

A key question in ecological genetics is to what extent do plants adapt to changes in climatic conditions, such as drought, through plasticity or evolution. To address this question, seeds of 140 maternal families of Brassica rapa were generated from collections made before (1997) and after (2004) a natural drought. These seeds were planted in the glasshouse and grown under low-water and high-water conditions. Post-drought lines flowered earlier than pre-drought lines, showing an evolutionary shift to earlier flowering. There was significant genetic variation and genotype by environment (G×E) interactions in flowering time, indicating genetic variation in plasticity in this trait. Plants that flowered earlier had fewer leaf nodes and lower instantaneous (A/g) and integrated (δ13C) water use efficiency than late-flowering plants. These results suggest that B.rapa plants escape drought through early flowering rather than avoid drought through increased water use efficiency. The mechanism of this response appears to be high transpiration and inefficient water use, leading to rapid development. These findings demonstrate a trade-off between drought avoidance and escape, and indicate that, in this system, where drought acts to shorten the growing season, selection for drought escape through earlier flowering is more important than phenotypic plasticity. © 2011 The Author. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RES IN NETWORKING TECH & SYS | Award Amount: 240.04K | Year: 2015

Recent advances in smart mobile devices (e.g., smartphones) have enabled many powerful applications and services, fundamentally changing the way we live, work, entertain, and communicate with each other. The project investigates a broad range of emerging and fast-growing smart mobile applications, such as smartphone-based cooperative streaming and data sharing, proximity-based dynamic mobile clouds, mobile device-to-device computing, and opportunistic networking. In those applications, services are provided and consumed by mobile users, through the crowds formed by those users, and through the processing and selling/reselling by service providers and resellers. The project introduces an effective design framework for mobile crowd service (MCS) systems that support those applications. The framework provides mechanisms to incentivize all users and service providers to fairly participate in such systems, which are crucial to the continuing success, wider adoption, and further innovation of smart mobile applications. The outcome of the research will have a significant impact on many aspects of our daily lives that are already permeated by smart mobile devices and applications, and will be integrated with a strong education component including curriculum development, student training, recruiting and engaging underrepresented students.

The project develops a theoretic foundation and design paradigms for developing practical algorithms and architecture that effectively manage the interplay between service providers, resellers, and mobile users in a complete MCS ecosystem. The project first designs a set of dynamic algorithms to incentivize users to truthfully and fairly participate in the proximity-based MCS systems that are formed mainly by dynamic mobile users. For systems where the interaction among all players dominates system dynamics and performance, the project develops an optimization formulation to achieve overall system efficiency and stability. Furthermore, the project investigates scenarios where players might game with the system in order to gain benefit. In a cooperative setting, the project designs a fair revenue sharing mechanism through a cooperative game model of a service provider and its resellers. For the case where all players self-interestedly but rationally game with the system, the project develops a non-cooperative game for static analysis, and a fluid model for dynamic analysis. The research takes into consideration the characteristics of mobile communications, and covers a broad range of MCS systems characterized by their dynamic user mobility patterns, heterogeneous user types and service quality, and distributed and asynchronous computation requirements. This project constitutes a significant advance in the design of mobile networked systems and applications based on smart mobile devices.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY | Award Amount: 672.07K | Year: 2015

Brown rats (also known as Norway or sewer rats) are one of the most common mammals in the world, and cause significant damage to human health and infrastructure. Cities in particular harbor very large rat populations, but their biology is poorly known. This study will address novel and important questions about the evolutionary and ecological processes occurring in the built environment using the infamous rat population in New York City. What specific types of urban infrastructure, such as sewers or subways, do rats use to move through the city? Are rat movements associated with socioeconomics of human neighborhoods? Where did NYC rats come from, and how are they related to other populations around the world? How have rats evolved since they invaded NYC in the 18th century? Results from this project will also be used to introduce students and the public to evolutionary biology by funding art projects and innovative curricular materials.

Several complementary genomic approaches will be used to understand the evolution of brown rats from local to global scales. First, landscape modeling based on structural and socioeconomic characteristics of NYC will shed light on the drivers of local population structure and movements of rats within NYC. Next, signatures of historical population size changes and ancestry that are encoded in the genomes of rats from around the world will then be examined. Within NYC, genes involved in recent adaptation to the urban environment will also be identified. Finally, these evolutionary changes will be confirmed using DNA extracted from museum specimens of rats collected over the last 125 years.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Secure &Trustworthy Cyberspace | Award Amount: 245.04K | Year: 2015

While smart phones provide an excellent way for communication, entertaining and education, they also raise many privacy and security concerns. Children are facing the risks of being exposed to inappropriate content due to mis-rated Apps. Both Android and iOS apps come with maturity ratings that examine the existence and intensity of mature themes within each app. However, each mobile platform adopts its own rating policy and rating strategy which creates inconsistency and inaccurate ratings. The maturity ratings for Android apps are purely a result of app developers self-report. Many claim that the Android rating policy is unclear, and it is difficult for developers to understand. A more critical risk resides in in-app advertisements. Many apps, especially the free ones, are connected to third party advertisements. Neither mobile platforms nor advertising networks apply these maturity policies to restrict the contents of in-app advertisements. However, this phenomenon has not been studied, nor have the factors that may lead to untruthful maturity ratings been explored. Thus, the risks associated with content inappropriateness are unknown. This project develops mechanisms to compare, analyze and verify the maturity ratings of mobile apps and in-app advertisements, and investigates possible reasons behind the inaccurate ratings. A variety of data will be collected to support the analysis including Web data crawled from the Web, App data from decompiled app code, and advertisement data collected in a number of demo apps.

This project adopts a multi-disciplinary approach to compare and understand the maturity rating policy difference among different platforms. It plans to investigate the current maturity rating framework on Android, iOS and other third-party authorities such as ESRB. By comparing the same app that appears on both Android and iOS app ratings, the project studies if ratings are reflected in app descriptions, user reviews, developer information, etc. App log data will be collected to analyze content maturity of in-app advertisements. The project will then build an effective text mining approach to estimate the true rating of an app. Using this as a foundation, the project will further analyze and evaluate a large number of Android and iOS app ratings as well as in-app advertisement content. Statistical analysis will be performed to understand the factors that lead to mis-rated maturity ratings.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS | Award Amount: 127.19K | Year: 2016

This project concerns optimal objects for their respective energy functionals, and as such existence and structural results are of interest in engineering, physics, and chemistry. The most classically studied of these are minimal surfaces, which locally minimize area subject to a fixed boundary. Of particular interest in this project are so-called constant mean curvature (CMC) and minimal surfaces as well as harmonic maps. CMC surfaces are also critical for the area functional, but with constraint now given by enclosed volume. Delaunay determined a family of CMC examples in 1841, but it was another 150 years before any new examples were known, at which time Kapouleas produced infinitely many new examples via gluing techniques. The variational solutions studied in this project have characterizations in many areas of mathematics and the proposed questions and desired results are of broad interest in mathematics and beyond.

The PI will continue her study of classical questions in geometric analysis related to the existence, regularity, and compactness of solutions to variational problems. The project will use and refine the gluing techniques pioneered by Kapouleas to produce new examples of minimal and CMC surfaces. The understanding of singularity development for a sequence of complete, properly embedded minimal disks, developed by Colding-Minicozzi, was of critical importance for the resolution of the uniqueness of the helicoid. In contrast to the picture developed when the disks are complete and proper, the structure of the singular set for sequences of embedded minimal disks with boundary in a ball can be pathological. These pathological examples are helpful in the resolution of uniqueness and regularity results. Gluing techniques will be used to produce even wilder singularities in settings where problems are intractable via former techniques. For CMC gluing, the project aims to extend the generalized gluing techniques developed in Euclidean space to more general manifolds. In the setting of harmonic maps, the aim of the project is to establish the existence of conformal harmonic maps into metric spaces with upper curvature bounds. This work generalizes a classical result of Sacks and Uhlenbeck on the existence of minimal 2-spheres. Existence of the established maps could help answer the unresolved portions of Thurstons Hyperbolization Conjecture.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 113.35K | Year: 2016

With this award from the Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) and Chemistry Research Instrumentation and Facilities Programs, Professor Ipsita Banerjee from Fordham University and colleagues John McMahon, Stephen Holler, Petr Shibayev and Christopher Koenigsmann have acquired a high resolution atomic force microscope (AFM). An AFM, unlike an optical microscope, does not use light to create an image. An AFM employs a microscopic probe (needle-like device) that passes over a surface. As the probe moves across the surface it generates electrical signals which describe the properties of the surface (hardness, roughness, cracks, wettability, elasticity, etc.). In this way, it produces an image of the surface. This information is important for visually characterizing the surface. AFM is useful for understanding why a chemical reaction may occur on the surface, or why the surface is unreactive (inert). In general, an AFM has three major abilities: force measurement, imaging, and manipulation. An AFM is an important tool in the development of novel materials for fuel cell catalysis, enhanced solar panels, and for very small nanoparticle sensors, all of which rely on specific surface properties and morphology. AFM is used to characterize biological tissue, viruses and drug delivery materials. The instrument is employed in undergraduate research projects training these students in the use of this technique and preparing them for future technological careers in the workplace and advanced degrees in science, engineering and medical fields.

The award is aimed at enhancing research and education at all levels, especially in areas such as (a) studying tissue scaffolds, protein dynamics and viral nanoparticles, (b) studying microcavity photonics, (c) analyzing nanomaterials for catalysis and fuel cells, (d) examining the role of iodine in the photocatalysis of oxygen reduction at a silver/silver iodide (Ag/AgI) fuel cell cathode and (e) studying stimuli-responsive liquid crystals and liquid crystalline polymers.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: SPRF-IBSS | Award Amount: 90.81K | Year: 2016

The Directorate of Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences offers postdoctoral research fellowships to provide opportunities for recent doctoral graduates to obtain additional training, to gain research experience under the sponsorship of established scientists, and to broaden their scientific horizons beyond their undergraduate and graduate training. Postdoctoral fellowships are further designed to assist new scientists to direct their research efforts across traditional disciplinary lines and to avail themselves of unique research resources, sites, and facilities, including at foreign locations. This postdoctoral fellowship award supports a rising scholar at the intersection of Linguistics and Neuroscience. Worldwide, there are more multilingual than monolingual speakers and, by extension, more accented than non-accented speakers of English and many other world languages (e.g., Spanish, Mandarin, Arabic). Social psychology and sociolinguistic research suggests that foreign accent often leads to stigmatization and negative social biases. The majority of the worlds speakers probably experience some type of stigmatization or stereotyping based on their non-standard accent. To improve intercultural interactions and global communication, better insights into how foreign accent affects comprehension, decision-making, and evaluation are needed. This research project addresses an important yet under-studied area of research in the neurocognition of language: the effects of speaker identity as a pragmatic social cue that influences language comprehension, and the impact of listener experience and attitudes on comprehension. Specifically, the project tests how foreign-accented speech impacts spoken language comprehension in four groups of listeners who differ in their prior experience with foreign-accented speakers: monolingual adult listeners, monolingual child listeners, and two groups of bilingual listeners (bilinguals with the same or a different foreign accent as the speaker). The interdisciplinary research project adds insight into the factors that underlie relationship-building among speakers and listeners from different language backgrounds, which is particularly important given that listeners tend to use language attitudes and cues, such as accent, to stereotype speakers attributes and make decisions about them. This project informs cross-cultural communication, especially for education, business, law, judicial sectors, and health and welfare sectors, where professionals and clientele frequently interact with people from different language backgrounds who speak with non-standard accents. Ultimately, the outcomes of the research will contribute to decreasing the potentiation of social disparity and reducing the entrenchment of negative social biases. Because the project takes a socio-contextual approach in the brain-based study of language, it also contributes to bridging neuroscience research with applied fields, including education.

This research project is the first neurocognitive study on how foreign-accented speech impacts language comprehension in four groups of listeners who differ in their experience with foreign-accented speakers. The multi-disciplinary approach combines insights and methods from cognitive neuroscience, sociolinguistics, and developmental psychology to investigate the interplay of language attitudes, accented speech comprehension, and neural signatures of language processing. The research design uses Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and analyses of neural oscillations to study the neural correlates of how listeners experience with foreign-accented speech and language attitudes affect language comprehension. The project tests both child and adult listeners and yields important insights into the development of neuropragmatic sensitivity in language comprehension and introduces linguistic pragmatics into neuroscience research. Additionally, including two groups of bilingual listeners identifies neuropragmatic effects on spoken language comprehension in non-native listeners. This is crucial considering that the majority of the worlds speakers are bi- or multilingual, making non-native listening a global social norm. Due to its interdisciplinary motivation and design, the project establishes the groundwork for future research on interactions among social, individual, and neurobiological factors in language and communication.

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