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The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer, Troller, and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV. In the past it has also produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns a 2.1% stake in Mazda of Japan, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and a 49% stake in Jiangling of China. It also has a number of joint-ventures, two in China , one in Thailand , one in Turkey , and one in Russia . It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership. It is described by Forbes as "the most important industrial company in the history of the United States."Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914 these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938.Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2010 vehicle sales. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe. Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.The company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. Wikipedia.

Maricq M.M.,Ford Motor Company
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The burgeoning diversification of particulate matter (PM) emissions regulations creates the need for aerosol monitors for use in engine development, on-board PM measurement, off-road emissions testing, roadside monitoring, and other applications where conventional instruments are impractical or too costly. This work critically examines from two perspectives the performance of three small, relatively inexpensive devices, the DustTrak, Pegasor Particle Sensor, and Diffusion Size Classifier, in engine exhaust PM measurement. First, results from chassis dynamometer vehicle emissions testing reveal that all three can provide accurate PM data that correlate well with the regulatory methods for PM mass and number, but only when there is little variation in morphology and composition. Second, detailed laboratory characterizations with oil and soot aerosols are reported that elucidate how these devices respond to particle size, morphology, and composition. They show that changes in aerosol properties affect all three monitors, but to a degree that depends on their particular detection method, optical, electrical charging, and charging plus diffusion. The results provide calibration data and describe conditions under which these monitors can reliably record PM emissions from engine exhaust. © 2013 American Association for Aerosol Research.

Jain R.,Ford Motor Company
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2011

Perfusion imaging of brain tumors has been performed by using various tracer and nontracer modalities and can provide additional physiologic and hemodynamic information, which is not available with routine morphologic imaging. Tumor vascular perfusion parameters obtained by using CT or MR perfusion have been used for tumor grading, prognosis, and treatment response in addition to differentiating treatment/radiation effects and non-neoplastic lesions from neoplasms. This article is an overview of the utility of PCT for assessment of brain tumors and describes the technique, its advantages, and limitations.

Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by CxHy+ ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and Cx- and C2xH- in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. © 2010.

This paper presents a recursive method to design state and output feedback controllers for MIMO, block-feedforward linear systems with delays in the inputs, outputs, and interconnections between the blocks. The resulting controller is of predictor-type, which means that it contains finite integrals over past state and input values. The method is a generalization of the well-known model reduction approach for systems with input delay. A recursive procedure replaces delay terms with non-delay ones step by step, from the top of the cascade structure down. Controller gains are computed for the proxy system without delays, while the construction guarantees the same closed loop poles for the delay system and the proxy one. The observer is designed by applying the duality argument and the separation principle is also shown to apply. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

RESULTS—: Compared with ABCA1 mice, ABCA1 mice showed marginally (P=0.052) increased lesion volume but significantly increased BBB leakage and WM damage in the ischemic brain and more severe neurological deficits. Brain ABCA1–deficient mice exhibited increased the level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and reduced the level of insulin-like growth factor 1 in the ischemic brain. BBB leakage was inversely correlated (r=−0.073; P<0.05) with aquaporin-4 expression. Reduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 and aquaporin-4, but upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression were also found in the primary astrocyte cultures derived from ABCA1 mice. Cultured primary cortical neurons derived from C57BL/6 wild-type mice with ABCA1 astrocyte–conditioned medium exhibited decreased neurite outgrowth compared with culture with ABCA1 astrocyte–conditioned medium. ABCA1 primary cortical neurons show significantly decreased neurite outgrowth, which was attenuated by insulin-like growth factor 1 treatment.CONCLUSIONS—: We demonstrate that brain ABCA1 deficiency increases BBB leakage, WM/axonal damage, and functional deficits after stroke. Concomitant reduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 may contribute to brain ABCA1 deficiency–induced BBB and WM/axonal damage in the ischemic brain.BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE—: The ATP-binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA1) gene is a key target of the transcription factors liver X receptors. Liver X receptor activation has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in animal ischemic stroke models. Here, we tested the hypothesis that brain ABCA1 reduces blood–brain barrier (BBB) and white matter (WM) impairment in the ischemic brain after stroke.METHODS—: Adult brain-specific ABCA1–deficient (ABCA1) and floxed-control (ABCA1) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion and were euthanized 7 days after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Functional outcome, infarct volume, BBB leakage, and WM damage were analyzed. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

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