PubMed | Aberystwyth University, The John Bingham Laboratory, University of Western Australia, University of Missouri and 19 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant biotechnology journal | Year: 2016
Agriculture is now facing the perfect storm of climate change, increasing costs of fertilizer and rising food demands from a larger and wealthier human population. These factors point to a global food deficit unless the efficiency and resilience of crop production is increased. The intensification of agriculture has focused on improving production under optimized conditions, with significant agronomic inputs. Furthermore, the intensive cultivation of a limited number of crops has drastically narrowed the number of plant species humans rely on. A new agricultural paradigm is required, reducing dependence on high inputs and increasing crop diversity, yield stability and environmental resilience. Genomics offers unprecedented opportunities to increase crop yield, quality and stability of production through advanced breeding strategies, enhancing the resilience of major crops to climate variability, and increasing the productivity and range of minor crops to diversify the food supply. Here we review the state of the art of genomic-assisted breeding for the most important staples that feed the world, and how to use and adapt such genomic tools to accelerate development of both major and minor crops with desired traits that enhance adaptation to, or mitigate the effects of climate change.
Oishi H.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Takahashi W.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Ebina M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Takamizo T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Breeding Science | Year: 2010
By data mining of EST databases and screening of a genomic library, the cold stimulated gene Lcs19 was isolated from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The amino acid sequence of the putative LCS19 was 74% identical to wheat (Triticum aestivum) WCS19. Transcripts of Lcs19 were detected after 8 h of cold treatment, and continued to increase up to 48 h after exposure. Lcs19 expression was induced only by cold temperature, and not by high salinity or exogenous abscisic acid. No Lcs19 expression was observed in seedlings that underwent the cold treatment in the dark. Comparison of the promoter of Lcs19 with that of homologous genes of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) showed that regions that include the DRE/CRT cisacting element sequence were conserved. These results suggest that Lcs19 expression is regulated by signal pathway mediated by the DRE/CRT element and other signal pathways reflecting photosynthetic conditions such as a redox signal.
Matsukura K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Shiba T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Sasaki T.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Yoshida K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Matsumura M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014
Aims: A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium uncinatum, accumulates N-formylloline, which is toxic to Hemipteran insects, in Italian ryegrass. This study aimed to clarify the dynamics of N. uncinatum and N-formylloline in Italian ryegrass, and their relationship to insect resistance. Methods and Results: Changes in the density and localization of N. uncinatum and N-formylloline in N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass were examined by real-time PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Neotyphodium uncinatum multiplied on pseudostems at the flowering stage, and then increased on inflorescences at the ripening stage. On the other hand, N-formylloline accumulated heavily in inflorescences and leaf blades, but lightly in pseudostems at the ripening stage. In field experiments, N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass suppressed the occurrence of Stenotus rubrovittatus, which fed on the inflorescences, but was not effective to Laodelphax striatellus, which do not necessarily prefer a particular plant tissue. Conclusion: Localization of N. uncinatum and N-formylloline were discordant in Italian ryegrass. The N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass was effective to only insects that prefer to feed on particular plant tissues containing N-formylloline. Significance and Impact of Study: Our data implies that the relationship between insect habits and the dynamics of alkaloids in plants is important for the effective use of endophyte-infected crops. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
PubMed | Forage Crop Research Institute and Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2015
A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium uncinatum, accumulates N-formylloline, which is toxic to Hemipteran insects, in Italian ryegrass. This study aimed to clarify the dynamics of N. uncinatum and N-formylloline in Italian ryegrass, and their relationship to insect resistance.Changes in the density and localization of N. uncinatum and N-formylloline in N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass were examined by real-time PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Neotyphodium uncinatum multiplied on pseudostems at the flowering stage, and then increased on inflorescences at the ripening stage. On the other hand, N-formylloline accumulated heavily in inflorescences and leaf blades, but lightly in pseudostems at the ripening stage. In field experiments, N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass suppressed the occurrence of Stenotus rubrovittatus, which fed on the inflorescences, but was not effective to Laodelphax striatellus, which do not necessarily prefer a particular plant tissue.Localization of N. uncinatum and N-formylloline were discordant in Italian ryegrass. The N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass was effective to only insects that prefer to feed on particular plant tissues containing N-formylloline.Our data implies that the relationship between insect habits and the dynamics of alkaloids in plants is important for the effective use of endophyte-infected crops.
Li M.,China Agricultural University |
Li M.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Yuyama N.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Hirata M.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
And 4 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2010
Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica) and Manila grass (Z. matrella) are the two most important and commonly used Zoysia species. A consensus based SSR linkage map was developed for the genus by combining maps from each species. This used previously constructed maps for two Z. japonica populations and a new map from Z. matrella. The new SSR linkage map for Z. matrella was based on 86 F2 individuals and contained 213 loci and covered a map distance of 1,351.2 cM in 32 linkage groups. Comparison of the three linkage maps constructed from populations with different genetic backgrounds indicated that most markers exhibited a consensus order, although some intervals or regions displayed discrepancy in marker orders or positions. The integrated map comprises 507 loci with a mean interval of 4.1 cM, covering a map distance of 2,066.6 cM in 22 linkage groups. The SSR-based map will allow marker-assisted selection and be useful for the mapping and cloning of economically important genes or quantitative trait loci. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Hirata M.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Yuyama N.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Cai H.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Cai H.,China Agricultural University
Plant Breeding | Year: 2011
With 1 table To isolate simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from Dactylis glomerata, four SSR-enriched genomic libraries for different repeat motifs from genomic DNA of a Japanese orchardgrass variety, 'Akimidori II', were constructed. A total of 969 unique SSR-containing clones were identified and used for primer design. A BLAST search revealed that 63 of the sequences showed significant homology with sequences of other plant species including 18 that showed significant gene homology. After screening of a panel consisting of eight orchardgrass individuals, 606 SSR markers showed polymorphism, 70 generated monomorphic bands and the other primers either generated multiple bands or did not provide any amplification product. In the 606 polymorphic SSR markers, most had a large number of alleles, ranging from 1 to 13 with an average of 4.5 alleles per SSR primer pair. The number of alleles per individual ranged from 1 to 4. These SSR markers developed in this study will have broad utility for genotyping applications in this species, including gene targeting, quantitative trait locus mapping, variety or species identification and marker-assisted selection. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Kindiger B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Conley T.,Oklahoma City University |
Keith-Stanley G.,Oklahoma City University |
Cai H.,Forage Crop Research Institute
Grassland Science | Year: 2011
Microsatellite markers represent a proven class of genetic markers that have wide use in a variety of plant genetic studies and exhibit several advantages when compared to other DNA-based marker systems. Because of their successful use for genetic analysis in a number of plant species, their generation and availability in the genus Poa (Poaceae) would be advantageous for a multitude of Poa improvement, selection or marker-assisted breeding endeavors. However, due to the cost of their development, few microsatellite markers are available for Poa. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of 46 informative microsatellite primer pairs from an unenriched Poa arachnifera Torrey (Texas bluegrass) genomic library. Most of the microsatellite primer pairs amplify a single amplification product and were found to be useful across seven other Poa species. The availability of these informative microsatellite markers should serve a valuable role in the analysis and construction of genetic linkage maps and future marker assisted selection projects. © 2011 The Authors. Grassland Science © 2011 Japanese Society of Grassland Science.
Tanaka T.,Hokkaido Research Organization |
Tamaki H.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science |
Cai H.-W.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Ashikaga K.,Hokkaido Research Organization |
And 2 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2011
Assessment of genetic diversity based on DNA profiling contributes to the selection of superior parents for heterosis. The objective of this study was to investigate how closely the yields of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) topcross progenies are related to the genetic diversity between their seed parents and the pollen tester parent 'Aurora', and to predict their yield potentials from the index based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker polymorphisms. Genetic diversity among 67 genotypes, which consisted of 16 plants of timothy cultivar Aurora, the pollen parent for topcross testers, and 51 clones derived from breeding populations was evaluated based on 28 SSR markers carrying 408 alleles. Genetic distance (GD) was estimated for all possible pairs of genotypes and then the mean of the GD estimates between each clone and Aurora (GDA) was also assessed to find the relationship between GDA estimates and yields of topcross progenies derived from all crosses between each clone and Aurora. The GDA estimates of the clones ranged from 0.653 to 0.756, and a correlation coefficient between the GDA estimates and yields of their topcross progenies was 0.675 (p < 0.001). These results strongly suggest that GD would provide reliable information on the yields of the assumed topcross progeny lines and that it will help breeders to accelerate yield improvements for a practical breeding program of timothy. © Crop Science Society of America.
Matsukura K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
Shiba T.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science |
Shiba T.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
Sasaki T.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Matsumura M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012
Particular alkaloids produced by Neotyphodium endophytes show toxicity to invertebrates. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lamarck) cultivars and strains that are symbiotic with Neotyphodium endophytes have been recently established in Japan. N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass lines accumulate N-formylloline, a type of loline alkaloid (1-aminopyrrolizidine) showing neurotoxicity to herbivorous insects. This study investigated the toxicity of N-formylloline and resistance of N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass to vascular-sap feeding Clypeorrhynchan pests. When four vascular-sap feeding insects: Laodelphax striatellus (Falln) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), Sogatella furcifera (Horvth) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), Cicadulina bipunctata (Melichar) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), and Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) fed on N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass, significant decreases in survival rate were observed for three phloem-sap feeders but not for a xylem-sap feeder, N. cincticeps. This result suggests an uneven distribution of N-formylloline among plant tissues. A potency assay for N-formylloline using a Parafilm feeding sachet and a quantitative analysis of N-formylloline in plant showed a concentration-dependent lethal effect of N-formylloline on all four tested vascular-sap feeders. Our results strongly suggest that N. uncinatum-infected plants can control some Clypeorrhynchan pests in crop fields. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.
Stevovic V.,University of Kragujevac |
Stanisavljevic R.,Forage Crop Research Institute |
Djukic D.,University of Novi Sad |
Djurovic D.,University of Kragujevac
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2012
A field experiment including 3 sainfoin cultivars (Makedonka, EG Norm, and the Sokobanja population) was set up in a seed production trial with the aim of determining adequate row spacing for seed and forage yield. The cultivars were sown at 3 different row spacings (20 cm, 50 cm, and 80 cm) and at a within-row spacing of 1 cm. Seed yield was determined over a 3-year period, whereas forage yield and quality were evaluated from the 2nd cut in the 2nd and 3rd years. Crop thinning through the years, distinct competitive ability of sainfoin, and a large impact of weather conditions induced significant differences in seed yield among years. All cultivars gave considerably higher yields at wider row spacings in the 2nd and 3rd years of the experiment. The cultivars responded differently to variable row spacings across years, which was due to differences in seed yield performance under different growing spaces and available moisture conditions. Owing to the low profitability of seed yield, in respect of both seed and forage yield, the use of wider row spacings (about 50 cm) for vigorous cultivars and narrower row spacing (below 50 cm) for less vigorous cultivars for seed yield may become feasible. © TÜBITAK.