Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP

Elda, Spain

Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP

Elda, Spain
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Marcilla A.,University of Alicante | Leon M.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Garcia A.N.,University of Alicante | Banon E.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Martinez P.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

The pyrolysis of a chromium-tanned waste (bovine split leather) under inert atmosphere has been carried out in a vertical lab scale reactor. The influence of process conditions, such as temperature, residence time, and heating rate on the pyrolytic product distribution has been studied, in order to optimize the liquid fraction obtained. Flash pyrolysis at three different temperatures (450, 500, and 550 °C) and slow pyrolysis up to 750 °C have been performed. Results indicate that, in the range of low temperatures, the product distribution is slightly dependent on temperature. In general, a reduction of the heating rate or residence time favors the presence of heavy gases (i.e., more than four carbon atoms hydrocarbons). The analysis of the pyrolytic liquid shows a wide spectrum of products (mainly nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds and phenols) which can be useful as a source of chemicals. A comparison between the results reached in the pyrolysis of tanned leather and a commercial collagen allows us to study the effect of the tanning process. According to the result obtained, the tanned leather produces more nitrogenated compounds and phenols and less ketones and linear hydrocarbons than pure collagen. A very good agreement between the evolution of pyrolytic gases produced in a slow pyrolysis and the weight loss of the solid measured by thermogravimetric analysis has been observed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Jimeno-Morenilla A.,University of Alicante | Jimeno-Morenilla A.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Davia M.,University of Alicante
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture | Year: 2011

The reverse design is one of the most widely used techniques in the field of rapid prototyping in industry. In this framework, sometimes the real original model is used so as to define the characteristic lines on its computer aided design (CAD) digitized version. These lines could otherwise hardly be drawn on the two-dimensional (2D) image displayed on the computer screen. The problem posed by this technique is that the sampling device uses a different coordinate system, and therefore it is necessary to carry out an initial calibration of the sampling device for the correct positioning of the points on the surface of the original geometry. The problem, known as 'landmark registration', is resolved in fields such as medicine or stereoscopic vision using techniques that include the transformation relating two sets of points: the original model and the virtual model. However, the shoe last has an anthropomorphic geometry that has no corners or relevant points, making it difficult to use these techniques with precision. For this reason, current solutions in the shoe industry involve the inclusion of physical marks in the original model that decrease the digitizing quality and distort the original model. This paper presents a 'landmark registration' algorithm for rapid prototyping. This algorithm uses only the set of traces obtained by sampling a physical object, and does not require a pre-characterization of relevant points. The algorithm finds the ideal transformation that minimizes the positioning error and prevents the original model from being damaged. The method is applied to real cases of reverse design for the footwear industry.

Marcilla A.,University of Alicante | Garcia A.N.,University of Alicante | Leon M.,University of Alicante | Martinez P.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Banon E.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2011

This paper presents a study of the influence of a NaOH treatment on leather samples tanned using different tanning agents. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and flash pyrolysis (Py/GC-MS) was carried out on treated samples, and the results were compared with those obtained with the untreated samples. Treatment with sodium hydroxide seemed to decrease the temperature of maximum leather decomposition rate between 4 and 27 °C, depending on the tanning agent, and increased the range of temperatures where leather degradation occurs. From flash pyrolysis experiments, it was found that the volatile products obtained from NaOH-treated samples contain higher amounts of nitrogen compounds than those obtained from untreated samples. The results of a multivariate analysis applied to pyrolytic products obtained in the flash pyrolysis of samples showed greater similarity between the results obtained in all treated samples than between treated and untreated samples produced with the same tanning process. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jimeno-Morenilla A.,University of Alicante | Garcia-Rodriguez J.,University of Alicante | Orts S.,University of Alicante | Davia-Aracil M.,University of Alicante | Davia-Aracil M.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
Computers in Industry | Year: 2016

Custom shoes manufacturing is one of the major challenges facing the footwear industry today. A shoe for everyone: it is a change in the production model in which each individual's foot is the main focus, replacing traditional size systems based on population means. This paradigm shift represents a major effort for the industry, for which the design and not production becomes the main bottleneck. It is therefore necessary to accelerate the design process by improving the accuracy of current methods. The starting point for making a shoe that fits the client's foot anatomy is scanning the surface of the foot. Automated foot model reconstruction is accomplished through the use of the self-organising growing neural gas (GNG) network, which is able to topographically map the low dimension of the network to the high dimension of the manifold of the scanner acquisitions without requiring a priori knowledge of the structure of the input space. The GNG obtains a surface representation adapted to the topology of the foot, is accurate, tolerant to noise, and eliminates outliers. It also improves the reconstruction in "dark" areas where the scanner does not obtain information: the heel and toe areas. The method reconstructs the foot surface 4 times more accurately than other well-known methods. The method is generic and easily extensible to other industrial objects that need to be digitized and reconstructed with accuracy and efficiency requirements. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Galiana M.V.,INCUSA | Navarro S.,INCUSA | Segarra V.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Ferrer J.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Riquelme E.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
31st IULTCS Congress | Year: 2011

For thousands of years, leather has been tanned with vegetable extracts, which was fine, although generally the result was very thick and hard leather. Then, for the last hundreds of years more than 90% of the leather has been tanned with Chromium. Chromium has brought many advantages for the leather industry: it has allowed the production of thinner, softer and water resistant leather, fulfilling the needs of modern life for better footwear, garments and upholstery. Even though, Chromium has always produced very much concern regarding one of its forms called Chrome VI, which is known to be toxic. In general, tanners consider that after 100 years of experience they have this under control; however it still remains worrying. This work focuses on a new titanium-based tanning system and shows the advantages it brings. SANOTAN leather is new chromium-free leather, tanned with titanium. Titanium seemed to be a good candidate for leather tanning because it proved to be bio-compatible, it has no toxic state, it has a long history of use in surgical instruments and brings no actual or potential drawback whatsoever to the leather industry. SANOTAN leather brings many new features and benefits to the footwear and leather goods industries. In this way, the biocompatibility test carried out showed that SANOTAN leather did not produce irritation or allergy. SANOTAN leather showed more thermal comfort than chrome-tanned leather, offered a better adaptation and better breathability. Sweat evaporation through SANOTAN leather is easier than through conventional leather, thus obtaining more comfortable footwear. Also, Titanium-tanned leather shoes were perceived as 40% warmer than chromium-tanned leather shoes. These studies led to the preparation and launching of the Ecoinnovation project TiLEATHER "Ecofriendly Leather Tanned with Titanium", whose main objective is to introduce SANOTAN leather into the European market. This project is partially supported by the Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation (EACI) under the Eco-Innovation Programme.

Marcilla A.,University of Alicante | Garcia A.N.,University of Alicante | Leon M.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Banon E.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Artinez P.M.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2012

The aim of this study is to use the results obtained from the pyrolysis of different commercially available leathers (using thermogravimetric analysis and a pyroprobe device) in order to obtain information about their composition, characteristics and origin. A very small amount of sample is needed to perform these experiments. The results of this work are highly promising, indicating that some specific characteristics of the samples are easily deduced from the pyrolytic results. The results indicate that phenols are related to vegetable tanning and ketones, alkanes and alkenes are related to chrome tanning. The multivariate analysis carried out allows us to distinguish the chromium tanned bovine hides and the chromium tanned goatskin among six different samples (various tanning agents and different origins). The analysis distinguishes the organic tanning from the chrome one regardless of the origin of the leather.

Amoros-Gonzalez F.J.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Jimeno-Morenilla A.,University of Alicante | Salas-Perez F.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2013

The footwear industry is a traditional craft sector, where technological advances are difficult to implement owing to the complexity of the processes being carried out, and the level of precision demanded by most of them. The shoe last joining operation is one clear example, where two halves from different lasts are put together, following a specifically traditional process, to create a new one. Existing surface joining techniques analysed in this paper are not well adapted to shoe last design and production processes, which makes their implementation in the industry difficult. This paper presents an alternative surface joining technique, inspired by the traditional work of lastmakers. This way, lastmakers will be able to easily adapt to the new tool and make the most out of their know-how. The technique is based on the use of curve networks that are created on the surfaces to be joined, instead of using discrete data. Finally, a series of joining tests are presented, in which real lasts were successfully joined using a commercial last design software. The method has shown to be valid, efficient, and feasible within the sector. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.

Davia M.,University of Alicante | Davia M.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Jimeno-Morenilla A.,University of Alicante | Salas F.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
CAD Computer Aided Design | Year: 2013

There is a growing need within the footwear sector to customise the design of the last from which a specific footwear style is to be produced. This customisation is necessary for user comfort and health reasons, as the user needs to wear a suitable shoe. For this purpose, a relationship must be established between the user foot and the last with which the style will be made; up until now, no model has existed that integrates both elements. On the one hand, traditional customised footwear manufacturing techniques are based on purely artisanal procedures which make the process arduous and complex; on the other hand, geometric models proposed by different authors present the impossibility of implementing them in an industrial environment with limited resources for the acquisition of morphometric and structural data for the foot, apart from the fact that they do not prove to be sufficiently accurate given the non-similarity of the foot and last. In this paper, two interrelated geometric models are defined, the first, a bio-deformable foot model and the second, a deformable last model. The experiments completed show the goodness of the model, with it obtaining satisfactory results in terms of comfort, efficiency and precision, which make it viable for use in the sector. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Roig M.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Segarra V.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Bertazzo M.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Martinez M.A.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | And 2 more authors.
31st IULTCS Congress | Year: 2011

At present, chrome tanning is the most widely used technique for leather tannage, accounting for more than 90% of leathers tanned worldwide. However, chrome tannage involves serious environmental risks resulting from the possible oxidation of chromium to a hexavalent state, although tanners are aware of the carcinogenic effect, in accordance with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). For this reason, the market has shown a growing demand for "ecological" products, especially regarding the development of tanning processes using alternative tanning agents different from chromium. Alternative tanning technologies include the use of oxazolidine in combination with other retannig agents of vegetal or synthetic origin, which allow for obtaining quality leathers that may be used by footwear and upholstery industries. Within this context, the European project "Environmentally Friendly Oxazolidine-Tanned Leather (OXATAN)" emerged, aimed at the demonstration, promotion and dissemination of oxazolidine tanning techniques, with the support of the European Commission within the framework of the LIFE+ Programme. This report includes the results obtained so far from different trials carried out at semiindustrial and industrial scale concerning leather tanning using oxazolidine, as well as the corresponding validation of environmental improvement achieved. Therefore, leathers obtained from the first tests meet the requirements of the European Ecolabel for Footwear. In addition, the improved biodegradability of tanning residual effluents was verified and the absence of chromium in solid waste and wastewater treatment sludge was demonstrated.

Marcilla A.,University of Alicante | Garcia A.N.,University of Alicante | Leon M.,University of Alicante | Martinez P.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP | Banon E.,Footwear Technological Institute INESCOP
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2011

The main objective of this paper is to study the thermal decomposition of waste products from leathers tanned with different tanning agents, from two different points of view: (i) thermogravimetric analysis and (ii) flash pyrolysis using a Pyroprobe device connected to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer (Py/GC-MS). Both techniques allow us to characterize the samples by evaluating their potential differences regarding the decomposition process as well as by identifying the significant volatile compounds obtained depending on the tanning processes. The results have been treated using a multivariate statistical analysis method. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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