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Pedersen C.-E.T.,Copenhagen University | Frandsen P.,Copenhagen University | Wekesa S.N.,Foot and Mouth Disease Laboratory | Heller R.,Copenhagen University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

With the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for rapidly evolving viruses. Coupled with an increasing abundance of sequence data sampled under widely different schemes, an effort to keep results consistent and comparable is needed. This study emphasizes commonly disregarded problems in the inference of evolutionary rates in viral sequence data when sampling is unevenly distributed on a temporal scale through a study of the foot-andmouth (FMD) disease virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2. Our study shows that clustered temporal sampling in phylogenetic analyses of FMD viruses will strongly bias the inferences of substitution rates and tMRCA because the inferred rates in such data sets reflect a rate closer to the mutation rate rather than the substitution rate. Estimating evolutionary parameters from viral sequences should be performed with due consideration of the differences in short-term and longer-term evolutionary processes occurring within sets of temporally sampled viruses, and studies should carefully consider how samples are combined. © 2015 Pedersen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Balinda S.N.,Makerere University | Sangula A.K.,Makerere University | Sangula A.K.,Foot and Mouth Disease Laboratory | Heller R.,Ole Maaloes Vej 5 | And 4 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success. We investigated the genetic relationships among serotype O strains in eastern Africa using complete VP1 coding region sequences obtained from 46 FMD virus isolates collected in Kenya in the years 1964-2008 and 8 Ugandan isolates collected between 1999 and 2006. In addition, 21 selected FMDV sequences from Genbank representing reference strains from eastern Africa and elsewhere were included in the Bayesian inference analyses and the detection of selection forces. The results confirmed previous observations that eastern Africa harbours four distinct topotypes (clades with >15% sequence divergence). All but one strain isolated post-2000 belonged to topotypes EA-2, EA-3 and EA-4, while all three vaccines have been based on strains in the EA-1 topotype. The estimated dN/. dS ratios across the individual codons of the entire VP1 coding region revealed that purifying (negative) selection constituted the dominant evolutionary force. Cross-border disease transmission within the region has been suggested with probable incursions of topotypes EA-3 and EA-4 into Kenya and Uganda from neighboring Ethiopia and Sudan. We conclude that the vaccines have probably been effective in controlling EA-1, but less so for the other topotypes and propose a more comprehensive representation of topotypes in the development of new vaccines in recognition of the considerable diversity and transboundary nature of serotype O. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bari F.D.,The Pirbright Institute | Parida S.,The Pirbright Institute | Tekleghiorghis T.,Central Veterinary Institute | Dekker A.,Central Veterinary Institute | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Vaccine strain selection for emerging foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks in enzootic countries can be addressed through antigenic and genetic characterisation of recently circulating viruses. A total of 56 serotype A FMDVs isolated between 1998 and 2012, from Central, East and North African countries were characterised antigenically by virus neutralisation test using antisera to three existing and four candidate vaccine strains and, genetically by characterising the full capsid sequence data. A Bayesian analysis of the capsid sequence data revealed the viruses to be of either African or Asian topotypes with subdivision of the African topotype viruses into four genotypes (Genotypes I, II, IV and VII). The existing vaccine strains were found to be least cross-reactive (good matches observed for only 5.4-46.4% of the sampled viruses). Three bovine antisera, raised against A-EA-2007, A-EA-1981 and A-EA-1984 viruses, exhibited broad cross-neutralisation, towards more than 85% of the circulating viruses. Of the three vaccines, A-EA-2007 was the best showing more than 90% in-vitro cross-protection, as well as being the most recent amongst the vaccine strains used in this study. It therefore appears antigenically suitable as a vaccine strain to be used in the region in FMD control programmes. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Sangula A.K.,Makerere University | Sangula A.K.,Foot and Mouth Disease Laboratory | Belsham G.J.,Technical University of Denmark | Muwanika V.B.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2010

Amongst the SAT serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the SAT 2 serotype is the most widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Kenyan serotype SAT 2 viruses have been reported to display the highest genetic diversity for the serotype globally. This complicates diagnosis and control, and it is essential that patterns of virus circulation are known in order to overcome these difficulties. This study was undertaken to establish patterns of evolution of FMDV serotype SAT 2 in Kenya using complete VP1 coding sequences in a dataset of 65 sequences from Africa, collected over a period of 50 years. Two highly divergent lineages were observed to co-circulate, and occasional trans-boundary spread was inferred, emphasizing the value of constant monitoring and characterization of field strains for improved diagnosis and appropriate vaccine application as well as the need for regional approaches to control. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Namatovu A.,National Diagnostics | Namatovu A.,P.A. College | Oj K.T.,Technical University of Denmark | Belsham G.J.,Technical University of Denmark | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/ tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres -≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres - ≥ 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds fromKiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From theWakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered. © 2015 Namatovu et al. Source

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