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Naini Tāl, India

Rout M.,Foot and Mouth Disease | Biswal J.K.,Foot and Mouth Disease | Dash B.B.,Foot and Mouth Disease | Hegde R.,Foot and Mouth Disease | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

The present study was undertaken to investigate foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in various villages of Chikkaballapur district in Karnataka. The disease was recorded in both small and large ruminant population. Serum samples (357) were collected from clinically sick, recovered and in-contact animals, and clinical samples (31) were collected from sick or recovering animals. In 3AB non-structural protein (NSP) ELISA, 42.85% cattle, 59.93% sheep and 73.91% goats were tested positive indicating an extensive FMD virus (FMDV) activity. The serum samples were also tested in liquid phase blocking (LPB) ELISA to assess the protective antibody titre, which were 42.85%, 6.72% and 8.69% for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Hence, it is presumed that poor herd immunity might have been one of the contributing factors for the spread of the disease. The outbreaks were caused by FMDV serotype O and Asia 1 as confirmed in serotype differentiating antigen detection ELISA and multiplex PCR. The VP1 region based phylogenetic analysis indicated the involvement of both Ind2001 and recently identified Ind2011 lineage of serotype O and lineage C of serotype Asia 1 in the outbreaks. The study revealed the epidemiological complexity of FMD in the field with respect to the spectrum of species of animals affected and the contemporaneous involvement of multiple serotypes and lineages. Source

Biswal J.K.,Foot and Mouth Disease | Sanyal A.,Foot and Mouth Disease | Rodriguez L.L.,Plum Island Animal Disease Center | Subramaniam S.,Foot and Mouth Disease | And 17 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The disease is a major threat to cattle, buffalo (both milk and meat) and pig production in endemic countries and therefore considered to cause food insecurity, both locally and globally. Currently, 6 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A, Asia-1, SAT-1,-2, and -3) are circulating globally, and serotype C has not been recorded since 1995. In India, the disease is caused by serotypes O, A and Asia-1, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected in serotypes. Serotype A viruses have been continuously emerging in the nature necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the country has been instrumental in formulation and implementation of FMD Control Programme through regular 6 monthly vaccination with the aim to create disease free zones in India. The control programme, in operation since X Plan, has resulted in progressive and substantial reduction in occurrence of the disease and DIVA reactors/converters in vaccinated areas. The present review summarizes the disease, the causative agent, and epidemiology of FMD in India and the world. Source

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