Food Western Australia

South Perth, Australia

Food Western Australia

South Perth, Australia
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Cook D.C.,Food Western Australia | Cook D.C.,Cooperative Research Center for National Plant Biosecurity | Cook D.C.,Australian National University | Carrasco L.R.,National University of Singapore | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics | Year: 2011

International trade of agricultural products not only generates wealth but is also responsible for the introduction of invasive pests beyond their natural range. Comprehensive bioeconomic modelling frameworks are increasingly needed to assist in the resolution of import access disputes. However, frameworks that combine welfare analysis attributable to trade and invasive species spread management are lacking. This study provides a demonstration of how a comprehensive economic framework, which takes into account both the gains from trade and the costs of invasive species outbreaks, can inform decision-makers when making quarantine decisions. We develop a partial equilibrium trade model considering international trade and combine it with a stratified dispersal model for the spread and management of potential outbreaks of an invasive species. An empirical estimation is made of the economic welfare consequences for Australia of allowing quarantine-restricted trade in New Zealand apples to take place. The results suggest the returns to Australian society from importing New Zealand apples are likely to be negative. The price differential between the landed product with SPS measures in place and the autarkic price is insufficient to outweigh the increase in expected damage resulting from increased fire blight risk. As a consequence, this empirical analysis does not support the opening up of this trade. © 2011 The Authors. AJARE © 2011 Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Inc. and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Cook D.C.,Food Western Australia | Cook D.C.,University of Western Australia | Cook D.C.,Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center | Cook D.C.,Australian National University | And 16 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

While Australia has lifted its outright ban on banana imports, very strict pre-entry requirements remain in place making it prohibitively expensive for foreign suppliers to land product in Australia. These include the establishment and maintenance of areas of low pest prevalence (following guidelines described in FAO, 2005; FAO, 2007, respectively), trash minimization procedures and post-harvest fungicide treatments (Biosecurity Australia, 2008). Strict though these import requirements are and small the risk of exotic disease transference may be, the potential consequences of some disease outbreaks to the Australian banana industry is potentially huge. In this paper we provide quantitative estimates of these potential damages (in Australian dollars, A$) and discuss the implications for Australia's import risk assessment process using the example of black Sigatoka. In 2001 this disease was detected in the Tully region of Queensland, a major banana production region. The cause of the outbreak remains unknown (Molina etal., 2005), but it was detected early enough to be eradicated at a cost A$17 million (Sosnowski etal., 2009). This outbreak has failed to quell calls to relax banana import requirements further, and criticism continues to be directed at Australia's import risk assessment process and its associated appropriate level of protection (Javelosa and Schmitz, 2006; Leroux and Maclaren, 2011). This is a locus of disease arrival probabilities and outbreak consequences with a unique product which forms a maximum expected damage a product entering the country can pose before violating Australian quarantine regulations. However, in practice the appropriate level of protection is not stated in quantitative terms, but is instead defined in rather ambiguous qualitative terms as very low. Our analysis provides quantitative evidence suggesting that in the case of banana imports, the appropriate level of protection corresponds to an expected damage of A$60 million per annum. This suggests that although current quarantine regulations are trade-restrictive, the appropriate level of protection corresponds to a relatively severe level of damage. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Tarr A.,Food Western Australia | Tarr A.,Murdoch University | Diepeveen D.,Food Western Australia | Diepeveen D.,Murdoch University | Appels R.,Murdoch University
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2012

A unique "Matrix" of malted barley samples was produced to validate spectroscopic procedures for monitoring the malting process. Three critical factors that were examined in controlling the rate of germination were moisture content, temperature and germination time. Of interest to the malting industry, the analysis indicates the potential to identify new germplasm that, under optimized malting conditions, would produce suitably modified malt in three days of germination. It is also clear that the control of both moisture and temperature is essential for undertaking malting studies. The study suggests that Raman and FTIR could usefully complement NIR spectroscopy for monitoring grain during the malting process. For whole grain NIR measurements, the differences between test grain and control grain at optimal wavelengths of 1280 nm and 2224 nm were found to be valuable parameters for tracking progress during the malting process. The study showed the whole grain NIR most likely assessed changing properties of the periphery of the grain. This research suggested that specific calibration models using NIR for predicting malt quality attributes such as diastatic activity on whole malt are misleading and difficult to interpret because they are highly correlated with other carbohydrate/protein-related attributes of the malt. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kaur S.,La Trobe University | Francki M.G.,Food Western Australia | Francki M.G.,Molecular Plant Breeding Cooperative Research Center | Francki M.G.,Murdoch University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2012

An understanding of nature and extent of nucleotide sequence variation is required for programmes of discovery and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which provide the most versatile class of molecular genetic marker. A majority of higher plant species are polyploids, and allopolyploidy, because of hybrid formation between closely related taxa, is very common. Mutational variation may arise both between allelic (homologous) sequences within individual subgenomes and between homoeologous sequences among subgenomes, in addition to paralogous variation between duplicated gene copies. Successful SNP validation in allopolyploids depends on differentiation of the sequence variation classes. A number of biological factors influence the feasibility of discrimination, including degree of gene family complexity, inbreeding or outbreeding reproductive habit, and the level of knowledge concerning progenitor diploid species. In addition, developments in high-throughput DNA sequencing and associated computational analysis provide general solutions for the genetic analysis of allopolyploids. These issues are explored in the context of experience from a range of allopolyploid species, representing grain (wheat and canola), forage (pasture legumes and grasses), and horticultural (strawberry) crop. Following SNP discovery, detection in routine genotyping applications also presents challenges for allopolyploids. Strategies based on either design of subgenome-specific SNP assays through homoeolocus-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, or detection of incremental changes in nucleotide variant dosage, are described. © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Setter T.L.,Food Western Australia | Setter T.L.,University of Western Australia | Bhekasut P.,Deep Water Rice Research Station | Greenway H.,University of Western Australia
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2010

This paper presents evidence that severe water deficits, following de-submergence after flash flooding of rice, contribute to submergence intolerance of IR 42, a rice cultivar that rapidly elongates during submergence. In glasshouse experiments, 13-day-old rice seedlings were completely submerged for 35 days. The main experiments were with IR 42, a cultivar intolerant to transient complete submergence. During submergence the 3rd leaf expanded, and after 5 days submergence its sheath was 4-fold longer than in non-submerged seedlings. After de-submergence, this leaf rapidly desiccated, its water potential dropped below 2MPa, while the stomatal conductance was very low. Excision experiments showed the water deficits after de-submergence were due mainly to a large reduction in the hydraulic conductivity in the leaf sheath. The water deficits are an important cause in the sequence of events rather than a mere result of injury: when plants were de-submerged at 100% rather than at 50% RH, water potentials remained high. However, when, after another 5 days, these plants were transferred to 50% RH, the 3rd leaf rapidly desiccated, indicating little repair of the lesion causing the low hydraulic conductivity. © 2010 CSIRO.

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