Food Trust

Philadelphia, PA, United States

Food Trust

Philadelphia, PA, United States

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Gittelsohn J.,Center for Human Nutrition | Laska M.N.,University of Minnesota | Karpyn A.,Food Trust | Ayala G.X.,San Diego State University
American Journal of Health Behavior | Year: 2014

Objectives: To document implementation challenges and opportunities associated with small store interventions. Methods: Case study analysis of small store interventions conducted in 4 regions of the US. We systematically generated matrices to compare and contrast lessons learned to advance implementation science. Results: Seven thematic areas were identified including: establishing relationships with stores, store owner and customer relationships, selection of intervention approaches, stocking healthier foods, evaluation, maintenance of changes, and dissemination. Conclusions: This information provides guidance to researchers and practitioners wishing to design, implement, and evaluate small store interventions. Copyright (c) PNG Publications. All rights reserved.


Cannuscio C.C.,University of Pennsylvania | Buttenheim A.,University of Pennsylvania | Karpyn A.,Food Trust | Glanz K.,University of Pennsylvania
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background Food environments may promote or undermine healthy behaviors, but questions remain regarding how individuals interact with their local food environments. Purpose This study incorporated an urban food environment audit as well as an examination of residents' food shopping behaviors within that context. Methods In 2010, the research team audited the variety and healthfulness of foods available in 373 Philadelphia stores, using the validated Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S); higher scores indicate more diverse and healthful food inventories. The team also surveyed urban residents (n=514) regarding their food shopping. Descriptive and multivariate analyses (conducted in 2012) assessed variation in retail food environments and in shoppers' store choices. Results Corner and convenience stores were common (78.6% of food retail outlets) and had the lowest mean NEMS-S scores of any store type. Most participants (94.5%) did their primary food shopping at higher-scoring chain supermarkets, and the majority of participants did not shop at the supermarket closest to home. Supermarket offerings varied, with significantly fewer healthful foods at supermarkets closest to the homes of disadvantaged residents. In multivariate analyses, participants were significantly more likely to shop at supermarkets closest to home if those supermarkets had higher NEMS-S scores. Conclusions These data suggest that, when possible, shoppers chose supermarkets that offered more variety and more healthful foods. Findings from this study also reinforce concern regarding unhealthy immediate food environments for disadvantaged residents, who disproportionately relied on nearby stores with more limited food items. Interventions to improve nutrition and health should address not only food store proximity but also diversity of healthful foods available. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Foster G.D.,Temple University | Karpyn A.,Food Trust | Wojtanowski A.C.,Temple University | Davis E.,University of Pennsylvania | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: The greater presence of supermarkets in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods has the potential to positively affect diet quality among those at greatest risk of obesity. In-store marketing strategies that draw attention to healthier products may be effective, sustainable, and scalable for improving diet quality and health. Few controlled studies of in-store marketing strategies to promote sales of healthier items in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods have been conducted. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-store marketing strategies to promote the purchase of specific healthier items in 5 product categories: milk, ready-to-eat cereal, frozen meals, in-aisle beverages, and checkout cooler beverages. Design: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted from 2011 to 2012. Eight urban supermarkets in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods were the unit of randomization, intervention, and analysis. Stores were matched on the percentage of sales from government food-assistance programs and store size and randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 4 intervention stores received a 6-mo, in-store marketing intervention that promoted the sales of healthier products through placement, signage, and product availability strategies. The 4 control stores received no intervention and were assessment-only controls. The main outcome measure was weekly sales of the targeted products, which was assessed on the basis of the stores' sales data. Results: Intervention stores showed significantly greater sales of skim and 1% milk, water (in aisle and at checkout), and 2 of 3 types of frozen meals compared with control store sales during the same time period. No differences were found between the stores in sales of cereal, whole or 2% milk, beverages, or diet beverages. Conclusions: These data indicate that straightforward placement strategies can significantly enhance the sales of healthier items in several food and beverage categories. Such strategies show promise for significant public health effects in communities with the greatest risk of obesity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Hillier A.,University of Pennsylvania | Cannuscio C.,University of Pennsylvania | Karpyn A.,Food Trust | Mclaughlin J.,University of Pennsylvania | And 2 more authors.
Urban Geography | Year: 2011

Research on the impact of the built environment on obesity and access to healthful foods often fails to incorporate information about how individuals interact with their environment. A sample of 198 low-income WIC recipients from two urban neighborhoods were interviewed about where they do their food shopping and surveys were conducted of food stores in their neighborhoods to assess the availability of healthful foods. Results indicate that participants rarely shop at the closest supermarket, traveling on average 1.58 miles for non-WIC food shopping and 1.07 miles for WIC shopping. Findings suggest that access to healthful foods is not synonymous with geographic proximity.


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.theguardian.com

Calls for a tax on meat and dairy products (Report, 8 November) are misguided and would increase, not decrease, overall emissions from agriculture. Instead we should improve production systems by taxing nitrogen fertiliser and pesticides, the underlying causes of environmental damage associated with food systems. Something close to mass hysteria has developed in relation to cattle and other ruminants since the publication in 2006 of Livestock’s Long Shadow, by the Food and Agriculture Organisation. This report and its successor in 2013 are both flawed and misleading. They conflate the emissions from the destruction of virgin land in South America, the root cause of which is not chicken production, but our insatiable demand for vegetable oils, with the actual emissions from ruminants. They also failed to balance this by including emissions from the conversion of land to grow crops for human consumption, or the carbon sequestration associated with the planting of forests in parts of the world, such as the UK, that was taking place at the same time. We do urgently need to reduce methane emissions, but fossil fuel extraction should be our primary focus because this puts new carbon into the atmosphere, whereas ruminants recycle existing atmospheric carbon and, under appropriate management, store large amounts of it in soils under grass. Richard Young Policy director, Sustainable Food Trust • Curbing advertising of junk food (Report, 12 November) to reduce childhood obesity is one needed measure, but it seems unlikely to be the most effective policy that could be employed to combat this urgent health crisis. Indeed, it appears to be a peripheral attempt to persuade the population to change their habits by removing temptation, hardly “tough” and at most superficial. On a recent journey from Glasgow to Sheffield it was striking that no service station visited offered healthy food options. Pre-packaged, high-fat, high-sugar hits were dominant. If the government is serious about tacking obesity, perhaps a more direct approach is needed? State-funded healthy eating outlets in motorway services would provide a welcome alternative. School meals have been transformed and are to an extent subsidised catering for young people, perhaps Jamie Oliver’s next big challenge could make a real difference for us all? John Wardle Sheffield • The Guardian’s Foodie traveller (Cook, 5 November) hosts Ben Tish advocating the eating of soft shell crabs. These, according to Mr Tish’s description, are killed by being “soaked in seasoned beaten egg” by which means they “eventually drown”. Mr Tish’s use of the word “eventually” indicates a period of pain and suffering. I do not like reading advocacies of animal cruelty, even towards crabs. I am not a militant vegetarian, just a normal member of the public. If the Guardian wants readers to support the Guardian financially, as you do, and as I am thinking of doing, please consider the very many of your readers who do not like the idea of the Guardian promoting animal cruelty for food pleasure. Those days really should be over, and I invite you to reconsider the Guardian’s position on this matter. Robin Leslie London • Read more Guardian letters – click here to visit gu.com/letters


Karpyn A.,Food Trust | Manon M.,Food Trust | Treuhaft S.,National Research and Action Institute | Giang T.,Food Trust | And 2 more authors.
Health Affairs | Year: 2010

In 2001 the Food Trust, a nonprofit organization committed to ensuring access to affordable, nutritious food, focused attention on the lack of access to healthy foods in Philadelphia by creating food access maps and convening a task force. The campaign led to the creation of a statewide initiative that to date has funded seventy-eight fresh food outlets in Pennsylvania, increasing food access for 500,000 children and adults. This success has led to interest from other states and the federal government in expanding the initiative. Here we present the Food Trust's five-step framework for increasing access to fresh, healthy food in other locales. © 2010 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.


Auchincloss A.H.,Drexel University | Young C.,Food Trust | Davis A.L.,Drexel University | Wasson S.,Drexel University | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective: Numerous localities have mandated that chain restaurants post nutrition information at the point of purchase. However, some studies suggest that consumers are not highly responsive to menu labelling. The present qualitative study explored influences on full-service restaurant customers' noticing and using menu labelling.Design: Five focus groups were conducted with thirty-six consumers. A semi-structured script elicited barriers and facilitators to using nutrition information by showing excerpts of real menus from full-service chain restaurants.Setting: Participants were recruited from a full-service restaurant chain in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, in September 2011.Subjects: Focus group participants were mostly female, African American, with incomes <$US 60 000, mean age 36 years and education 14·5 years. At recruitment, 33 % (n 12) reported changing their order after seeing nutrition information on the menu.Results: Three themes characterized influences on label use in restaurants: nutrition knowledge, menu design and display, and normative attitudes and behaviours. Barriers to using labels were low prior knowledge of nutrition; displaying nutrition information using codes; low expectations of the nutritional quality of restaurant food; and restaurant discounts, promotions and social influences that overwhelmed interest in nutrition and reinforced disinterest in nutrition. Facilitators were higher prior knowledge of recommended daily intake; spending time reading the menu; having strong prior interest in nutrition/healthy eating; and being with people who reinforced dietary priorities.Conclusions: Menu labelling use may increase if consumers learn a few key recommended dietary reference values, understand basic energy intake/expenditure scenarios and if chain restaurants present nutrition information in a user-friendly way and promote healthier items. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.


Lucan S.C.,Yeshiva University | Karpyn A.,Food Trust | Sherman S.,Food Trust
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2010

Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child s food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% ofall kinds ofsnack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were "unhealthy" (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% ofa day s recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a "typical" child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention. © 2010 The New York Academy of Medicine.


Erinosho T.O.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Beth Dixon L.,New York University | Young C.,Food Trust | Brotman L.M.,New York University | Hayman L.L.,University of Massachusetts Boston
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective To evaluate whether food behaviours of parents are associated with children's dietary intakes outside the child-care setting, and to compare children's dietary intakes at home with foods and beverages consumed when they are at child-care centres. Design In 2005-2006, a survey was completed by parents of at least one child between 3 and 5 years old who attended group child-care centres. Surveys about nutrition practices were completed by centre directors. Research assistants observed foods and beverages consumed by children at lunchtime at the centres. Setting Sixteen licensed group child-care centres in three underserved New York City communities (South Bronx, East/Central Harlem, Central Brooklyn) and the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Subjects Two hundred parents. Results Children were more likely to consume healthful foods including fruits or vegetables if parents reported purchasing food from produce stands/farmers' markets, shopped for frozen or canned fruits frequently and ate family meals or meals prepared at home daily. Children were more likely to consume less healthful foods such as French fries, or fruit drinks, more frequently if parents reported eating meals from fast-food or other restaurants at least once weekly, or if children ate while watching television. Types of foods and beverages offered to children at home (e.g. higher-fat milk, soft drinks and desserts) were less healthful than those offered at child-care centres. Conclusions Children's dietary intakes at home need to be improved. Parents need to understand the importance of providing home environments that support healthful food behaviours in children. © 2012 The Authors.


Karpyn A.,Food Trust | Young C.,Food Trust | Weiss S.,Food Trust
Childhood Obesity | Year: 2012

The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public-private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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