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Rodriguez-Campos J.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Escalona-Buendia H.B.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Orozco-Avila I.,Food Technology Unit | Lugo-Cervantes E.,Food Technology Unit | Jaramillo-Flores M.E.,Polytechnic School of Algiers
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Different volatile and non-volatile compounds produced during the fermentation-drying process are considered as indicatives of cocoa beans quality. We found thirty-nine different compounds identified by SPME-HS/GC-MS and related to the desirable notes and off-flavor that have been reported. Volatile and non-volatile compounds were associated with acidity and changes of pH, such as acetic and lactic acid. Using the principal component analysis (PCA), relations between compounds and fermentation and drying day were associated with dynamics of these compounds. The identification of principal compound produced during the fermentation and drying processes can be helpful in searching for off-flavor indicator and as a fermentation index, such as isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids. Oxidation of 3-methyl-1-butanol-to-3-methyl-1-butanol acetate can be of use in evaluating the degree of fermentation. At drying, the compounds with the highest levels were acetic and isobutyric acid, ethyl and 3-methyl-1-butanol acetate, pentanal and 2,3-pentanedione, and 1,3-butanediol and 2,3-butanediol. Therefore, acetic acid and isobutyric acid, due to their high levels and their low threshold value could play an important role in the aromatic quality of cacao drying. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Rodriguez-Campos J.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Escalona-Buendia H.B.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Contreras-Ramos S.M.,Environmental Technology Unit | Orozco-Avila I.,Food Technology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effects of fermentation time and drying temperature on the profile of volatile compounds were evaluated after 2, 4, 6, and 8 fermentation days followed by drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. These treatments were compared with dry cocoa controls produced in a Samoa drier and by a sun-drying process. A total of 58 volatile compounds were identified by SPME-HS/GC-MS and classified as: esters (20), alcohols (12), acids (11), aldehydes and ketones (8), pyrazines (4) and other compounds (3). Six days of fermentation were enough to produce volatile compounds with flavour notes desirable in cocoa beans, as well as to avoid the production of compounds with off-flavour notes. Drying at 70 and 80 °C after six fermentation days presented a volatile profile similar to the one obtained by sun drying. However, drying at 70 °C represents a lower cost. Given the above results, in the present study the optimal conditions for fermentation and drying of cocoa beans were 6 days of fermentation, followed by drying at 70 °C. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Food Technology Unit, Environmental Technology Unit, Metropolitan Autonomous University and Polytechnic School of Algiers
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

The effects of fermentation time and drying temperature on the profile of volatile compounds were evaluated after 2, 4, 6, and 8 fermentation days followed by drying at 60, 70 and 80C. These treatments were compared with dry cocoa controls produced in a Samoa drier and by a sun-drying process. A total of 58 volatile compounds were identified by SPME-HS/GC-MS and classified as: esters (20), alcohols (12), acids (11), aldehydes and ketones (8), pyrazines (4) and other compounds (3). Six days of fermentation were enough to produce volatile compounds with flavour notes desirable in cocoa beans, as well as to avoid the production of compounds with off-flavour notes. Drying at 70 and 80C after six fermentation days presented a volatile profile similar to the one obtained by sun drying. However, drying at 70C represents a lower cost. Given the above results, in the present study the optimal conditions for fermentation and drying of cocoa beans were 6days of fermentation, followed by drying at 70C.


Dalmau A.,Animal Welfare Unit | Pallisera J.,Animal Welfare Unit | Pedernera C.,Animal Welfare Unit | Munoz I.,Food Technology Unit | And 5 more authors.
World Rabbit Science | Year: 2016

An investigation was performed to determine whether high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 70-98% in atmospheric air are a suitable alternative for stunning rabbits compared to conventional approaches such as electronarcosis. Aversion to the gas and efficacy in causing prolonged unconsciousness and death were studied in a total of 480 rabbits by means of behavioural parameters, physiological indicators (presence of rhythmic breathing and corneal reflex) and electroencephalography (EEG, brain function). The use of any of the 4 studied concentrations of the gas caused more nasal discomfort and vocalisations than the use of atmospheric air (P<0.001). EEG activity confirmed that loss of posture is a good indicator of the onset of unconsciousness in rabbits exposed to CO2, occurring earlier (P<0.05) at 90 and 98% than at 70 and 80%. Rabbits showed signs of aversion for 15 s before the onset of unconsciousness, which occurred around 30 s after the beginning of the exposure to the gas, similar to species such as swine in which high concentrations of CO2 are also used for stunning. CO2 at 80 to 98% is suggested as a reasonable concentration range to induce a long state of unconsciousness and death in rabbits, while 70% CO2 is not recommended because it requires too long duration of exposure (more than 360 s) to ensure effectiveness. Despite the advantages in terms of pre-stun handling and irreversibility, CO2 is not free of animal welfare concerns. In consequence, a debate is necessary to ascertain if CO2 can be considered a suitable alternative to stun rabbits, considering the advantages and drawbacks cited, quantified in the present study as 15 s of aversion (nasal discomfort and vocalisations) before losing posture. © WRSA, UPV, 2003.

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