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Al-Abid M.,Food Technology Research Laboratory | Gohs U.,Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology | Al-Farsi M.,Food Technology Research Laboratory | Al-Amri M.,Food Technology Research Laboratory | Al-Rawahi F.,Food Technology Research Laboratory
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

In this study electron-beams were applied to disinfestate dates through using 5 different energy/doses and comparing disinfestation efficacy such as insect mortality and hatches with microwave, steaming and fumigation by phostoxin. The percentage of mortality was 100% for all electron-beam treatments, also hatches were less (0-1) compared to microwave, steaming and fumigation. The treated dates' quality was assessed by measuring moisture content, water activity, color, total viable count (TVC), yeast and mould count (YMC) and antioxidant capacity. There was no difference in moisture content between control and other treated samples except for steaming and fumigation, whereas moisture increased to 14.59 and 15.07 g/100 g respectively. Alike to the changes pattern of the moisture content, the steam treatments as well as the fumigated samples reveal a slight increase in the water activity. Color lightness was lowest in the steaming sample (20.36); conversely, it remains almost unchanged through other treatments. Electron beams (1.5 MeV/1.0 kGy and 1.5 MeV/2.0 kGy) had the lowest TVC (1.65 and 1.70 log cfus/g), and also YMC was low in samples treated by electron beams in comparison with other treatments. There were no significant differences in antioxidant capacity between all treatments, except for the sample treated by electron beams 1.5 MeV/ 2.0 kGy, antioxidant capacity was reduced to 232 μmol/g. EPR free radicals generation (g-value) measurements through alanine dosimetry were 1×10 -8 mol/J lower than the alanine (3×10 -7 mol/J).


Al-Abida M.,Food Technology Research Laboratory | Al-Amri M.,Food Technology Research Laboratory | Al-Rawahi F.,Food Technology Research Laboratory
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Surface fermentation and submerged fermentation by A. niger (ATCC 9642) have been carried out to produce citric acid from dates. The submerged technique shows superiority in terms of time reduction as well as yield. The pH drop due to the production of citric acid took ten days in most of the surface fermentation treatments; whereas highest yield of citric acid produced by the submerged fermentation has been obtained after two days. In addition, oxalic did not appear in HPLC assay. To track the formation of citric acid during the fermentation an HPLC and RI detector have been applied successfully through the developed method.

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