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Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

Sarker M.S.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Sarker M.S.H.,Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University | Ibrahim M.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Aziz N.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Punan M.S.,Food Technology Research Center
Drying Technology | Year: 2013

The performances of industrial dryers, namely the inclined bed dryer (IBD) and the fluidized bed dryer (FBD) combined with IBD, in terms of drying kinetics, energy consumption, and quality of paddy were investigated in this study. Drying parameters used in a single-stage paddy drying using IBD and a two-stage drying using FBD combined with IBD were analyzed to assess the existing performances of the drying techniques. The overall performances of the current drying practices exhibited inconsistent results with the operating parameters, such as drying air temperature, drying time, and air flow rate among the drying process lines. Distinct variations in moisture reduction and energy consumption of the drying systems were identified. Poor performance of the industrial fluidized bed dryer was observed in the case of drying in low capacity that caused higher specific energy consumption. However, the quality of milled rice obtained from both drying systems was found to be almost similar. Minimal process time (i.e., up to 24.5% less) was found in the paddy dried with FBD as the first-stage drying, followed by IBD as the second-stage drying. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Adzaly N.Z.,Michigan State University | Adzaly N.Z.,Food Technology Research Center | Jackson A.,Florida A&M University | Kang I.,Michigan State University | Almenar E.,Michigan State University
Meat Science | Year: 2016

The goal of this study was to validate the commercial feasibility of a novel casing formed from chitosan containing cinnamaldehyde (2.2%, w/v), glycerol (50%, w/w) and Tween 80 (0.2% w/w) under traditional sausage manufacturing conditions. Meat batter was stuffed into both chitosan and collagen (control) casings and cooked in a water bath. Before and after cooking, both casings were compared for mechanical, barrier, and other properties. Compared to collagen, the chitosan casing was a better (P≤. 0.05) barrier to water, oxygen, liquid smoke, and UV light. In mechanical and other properties, the chitosan casing had higher (P≤. 0.05) tensile strength, lower (P≤. 0.05) elongation at break and tensile energy to break, and better (P≤. 0.05) transparency whereas a similar (P>. 0.05) water solubility to the collagen casing. Overall, the chitosan casing was less affected by sausage manufacturing conditions than the collagen casing, indicating that chitosan casing has potential as an alternative to the current collagen casing in the manufacture of sausages. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Sarker M.S.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Sarker M.S.H.,Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University | Ibrahim M.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Ab. Aziz N.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd. Salleh P.,Food Technology Research Center
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

The performance evaluation of any industrial dryer regarding energy consumption and product quality should be assessed to check its present status and to suggest for further efficient operation. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the impact of drying temperature and air flow on energy consumption and quality of rice during paddy drying with industrial inclined bed dryer (IBD) with average holding capacity of 15 ton in the selected complexes of Padiberas Nasional Berhad (BERNAS)-the national paddy custodian of Malaysia. In reducing paddy moisture content (mc) from 22% to 23% wet basis (wb) down to around 12.5% wb, the final mc, the specific electrical (in terms of primary energy) and the specific thermal energy consumption were found to be varied between 1.44 to 1.95 MJ/kg water evaporated and 2.77 to 3.47 MJ/kg water evaporated, respectively. Analysis revealed that the specific electrical energy consumption was around 20% lesser and the specific thermal energy consumption of IBDs was around 10% higher during drying with air temperature of 41-42 C than drying with 38-39 C in reducing paddy mc from 22% to 23% (wb) down to around 12.5% (wb). However, paddy being with almost same initial mc dried using drying temperature of 38-39 C, IBDs yielded 1-4% higher head rice yield while milling recovery and whiteness were comparable at acceptable milling degree and transparency. The bed air flows between 0.27 and 0.29 m3 m -2 s-1 resulted in higher head rice yield slightly while its effect on drying time was not prominent so much. For paddy with initial moisture content below 23% wb, it is recommended that drying air temperature should not be higher than 39 C in order to maintain rice quality at reasonable energy consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ubaidillah N.H.N.,University of Malaya | Ubaidillah N.H.N.,Food Technology Research Center | Abdullah N.,University of Malaya | Sabaratnama V.,University of Malaya
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Background: The role of polysaccharides isolated from the Ganoderma species of fungi in innate immunity has recently become a topic of research. Although some work has been conducted concerning Ganoderma lucidum, the characteristics of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma neojaponicum (Imazeki) as immunomodulatory agents are largely unknown. The aims for this study were to isolate and characterize the intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of G. neojaponicum from STR reactor. Results: The production of EPS and IPS was optimized on day 4 of the cultivation time in 2 L STR reactor based on the amount of biomass yield, total carbohydrate, β-glucan and α-glucan content. Further analysis, both the EPSs and IPSs showed the enhancement on proliferation and increment of phagocytosis activities of macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines. Using an oral toxicity test, we also observed that 2000 mg/kg body weight/day dosage of dried G. neojaponicum mycelium does not cause any significant toxic effects on Sprague–Dawley rats in 14 d of administration. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that the IPSs and EPSs of G. neojaponicum have the potential to be used as immunomodulating agents to stimulate the innate immune system for fighting infectious diseases. The polysaccharides from G. neojaponicum have to be further commercially explored as an alternative for medicinal Ganoderma variety of G. lucidum production. © 2015 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sarker M.S.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Sarker M.S.H.,Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University | Ibrahim M.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdul Aziz N.,University Putra Malaysia | Punan M.S.,Food Technology Research Center
Energy | Year: 2015

This paper presents energy and exergy analysis of industrial fluidized bed paddy drying. The maximum design capacity of the dryer was 22t/h. Existing energy and exergy models developed applying the First and Second law of Thermodynamics are employed to estimate the amounts of energy used, the ratios of energy utilization, magnitude of exergy losses and exergy efficiencies during the drying process. The analysis shows that energy usage and (EUR) energy utilization ratios vary between 38.91kJ/s to 132.00kJ/s and 5.24-13.92 %, respectively while exergy efficiency vary from 46.99 to 58.14%. A simple exergy balance reveals that only 31.18-37.01 % exergy are utilized for drying of paddy and the remaining large amount of exergy are wasted. Exergy can be increased through providing sufficient insulation on dryer body and recycling the exhaust air which need to be studied further for investigating the economic feasibility. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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