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Paterson R.R.M.,University of Minho | Lima N.,University of Minho | Taniwaki M.H.,Food Technology Institute ITAL
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Coffee is very valuable. However, it is subjected to various pest and diseases of which mycotoxin contamination is of great importance in terms of the health of consumers and economic loss. The major compound of concern is ochratoxin A (OTA) which has statutory limits imposed on the commodity in, for example, the European Union. The concentrations of OTA appear often well within the limits and the situation is containable, although some surveys revealed levels higher than statutory limits and frequency of contamination was often high. The producing fungi are Aspergilli. Nevertheless, there remains some misidentification in the literature in relation to Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus westerdijkiae: other important producers are Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger. Coffee husks are high in OTA and are fortunately removed during processing. Beans obtained after falling on the soil and coffee which had been floated as part of processing, were reported as high in OTA and should be avoided. The presence of aflatoxins (AF) needs consideration. More work is required on the presence of fumonisins in coffee. The effect of climate change on mycotoxins in coffee requires urgent consideration as, for example, AF may become more problematic than OTA in 50. years. Finally, careful monitoring of coffee is essential to nurture this desirable commodity into the future. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Morgano M.A.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Teixeira Martins M.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Teixeira Martins M.C.,University of Campinas | Rabonato L.C.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

A set of experiments was carried out to validate a method for inorganic contaminants in honeybee-collected pollen, consisting of digestion of the samples in a closed microwave-assisted system and quantification of 10 inorganic contaminants by ICP OES. Forty-three samples of Brazilian bee pollen, collected in southeastern Brazil during one year, were analyzed. Determination of these analytes is important both as bioindicators of pollution and to verify the safety of consuming the pollen itself. The method had satisfactory performance, with good accuracy and precision. The ranges of the mean levels were 10.4-268.0 mg/kg for Al, <0.01-1.38 mg/kg for As, 2.78-17.63 mg/kg for Ba, 0.003-0.233 mg/kg for Cd, <0.01-1.11 mg/kg for Co, <0.01-2.32 mg/kg for Cr, <0.10-1.13 mg/kg for Ni, <0.01-0.44 mg/kg for Pb, <0.035-1.33 mg/kg for Sb, and <0.0004-0.0068 mg/kg for Hg. Contamination seemed to occur in the following decreasing order: São Paulo > Minas Gerais > Espírito Santo. Generally higher levels of all studied contaminants were observed in samples produced in an urban site, compared to those of a rural site. Al, Cd, Co, and Pb tended to have higher levels during the dry months (July-October). Ingestion estimates showed that Al and As would have the highest contributions to the adult diet, reaching 27 and 8%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values, considering a daily portion of 25 g. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Dalmas P.S.,Federal University of Paraiba | Bezerra T.K.A.,Federal University of Paraiba | Morgano M.A.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Milani R.F.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Madruga M.S.,Federal University of Paraiba
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

Many edible meat by-products are just as significant sources of essential nutrients as meat itself. The use of blood and liver in the preparation of pâté offers an alternative for the economic exploitation of goat 'variety meat'. Given the scant information on the production of goat pâté, the objectives of this study were to develop a value-added product, goat pâté, processed with variety meat (goat meat trimmings, goat liver and blood) and to determine its physico-chemical parameters and mineral profile. Three formulations, with different percentages of blood and liver, were prepared; formulation A consisted of 21% liver and 9% blood, formulation B contained 15% liver and 15% blood, and formulation C contained 9% liver and 21% blood. As well as the mineral profile (Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, P, Cu, K, Cr), the physico-chemical parameters of water activity (Aw), pH, colour (CIE L *. a *. b *), moisture, lipid, protein, total carbohydrate and ash were evaluated. All three formulations of goat pâté were in accordance with Brazilian legislation for moisture, protein, lipid and carbohydrate content. Parallel significant differences (P< 0.05) were detected for moisture, protein, carbohydrate, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and copper content, and for L * and a *, among the three formulations. Pâté C, prepared with the highest amount of blood, was richest in iron and presented the highest redness (a *). The other parameters examined did not differ with the variations in blood and liver used. The development of new goat products using variety meats offers an option for adding value in the productive sector and makes available an easily assimilated source of iron. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Kobori C.N.,University of Campinas | Huber L.S.,University of Campinas | Sarantopoulos C.I.G.L.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Rodriguez-Amaya D.B.,University of Campinas
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

Minimally processed kale leaves were packed in passive modified atmosphere and stored at 3 conditions: 1 °C in the dark and 11 °C with or without light exposure. The products were evaluated during storage in terms of headspace gas composition, sensory attributes, flavonol, and carotenoid contents. The sensory quality decreased slightly during 17 d at 1 °C in the dark. At 11 °C, the vegetable shelf life was predicted to be 6 d in the dark and 3 d with light. Quercetin and kaempferol were stable during storage for 15 d at 1 °C in the absence of light. At 11 °C in the dark, quercetin was stable during 10 d, increasing slightly on the 8th day. Kaempferol decreased up to the 5th day but increased on the 8th day, decreasing again on the 10th day. After 5 d at 11 °C under light, the flavonol levels were significantly higher than those of the initial values. Neoxanthin and violaxanthin did not change significantly after 15 d at 1 °C in the dark. Lutein and β-carotene, however, decreased 7.1% and 11.3%, respectively. At 11 °C in the dark, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene decreased 16.1%, 13.2%, 24.1%, and 23.7% after 10 d, respectively. At 11 °C under light, neoxanthin and lutein had a slight increase while violaxanthin and β-carotene decreased 23.1% and 16.5% after 5 d. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists ®.


Grizotto R.K.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Rufi C.R.G.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Yamada E.A.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Vicente E.,Food Technology Institute ITAL
Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos | Year: 2010

The objective of this research was to test the addition of soymilk residue, also known as okara, to a molded sweet biscuit (MSB). The okara was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems are based on hot disintegration of decorticated (company B) or non-decorticated (company A) soybeans and separation of the soymilk. Okaras A and B were dehydrated in a flash dryer and then ground to a flour (< 200 mesh). The okara flours showed high protein (35 g.100 g-1 dwb), lipid (17 g.100 g-1 dwb), and fiber (17 to 21 g.100 g-1 dwb) contents. The water holding capacity, protein solubility, emulsifying capacity, emulsion stability and isoflavone contents found in flour A were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in flour B. The formulation of MSB, replacing 30% (w/w) of the wheat flour with okara flour was tested. The results of the physical measurements, brittleness and water activity of the MSB with flours A and B did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) from those of the standard. The color, flavor and overall quality of the MSB with 30% of okara flour B did not differ significantly from those of the standard biscuit, demonstrating its potential for application in confectionery products.


Barretto A.C.S.,São Paulo State University | Pacheco M.T.B.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding wheat fiber and partial pork back fat on the quality characteristics of bologna sausage. The compound central rotating design was used with treatments containing fixed levels of inulin (5%) and oat fiber (1%) and variable levels of wheat fiber (0-4%) and pork back fat (0-10%). The pH and protein were similar in all the treatments, the fat was lower than the control treatment and the moisture content was higher than the control treatment (CF) without fibers. The wheat fiber increased the hardness and reduced cohesiveness and scores were given for overall impression. We found that it was possible to prepare low-fat bologna sausage with the addition of 6.58% fiber (5% inulin, 1% oat fiber and 0.58% wheat fiber), whilst retaining good sensory acceptability, thus reducing the pork back fat levels by between 25 and 42.75%. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA. All rights reserved.


Vecina J.F.,University of Campinas | Oliveira A.G.,University of Campinas | Araujo T.G.,University of Campinas | Baggio S.R.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | And 3 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Aims The search for natural agents that minimize obesity-associated disorders is receiving special attention. In this regard, the present study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) on body weight, lipid profile, blood glucose and insulin signaling in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Main methods Balb/C mice were fed either with standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD) and received concomitant treatment with CV for 12 consecutive weeks. Triglyceride, free fatty acid, total cholesterol and fractions of cholesterol were measured using commercial assay. Insulin and leptin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed. The expression and phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-1 and Akt were determined by Western blot analyses. Key findings Herein we demonstrate for the first time in the literature that prevention by CV of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in obese mice, as shown by increased glucose and insulin tolerance, is in part due to the improvement in the insulin signaling pathway at its main target tissues, by increasing the phosphorylation levels of proteins such as IR, IRS-1 and Akt. In parallel, the lower phosphorylation levels of IRS-1ser307 were observed in obese mice. We also found that CV administration prevents high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia by reducing triglyceride, cholesterol and free fatty acid levels. Significance We propose that the modulatory effect of CV treatment preventing the deleterious effects induced by high-fat diet is a good indicator for its use as a prophylactic-therapeutic agent against obesity-related complications. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Grizotto R.K.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | de Aguirre J.M.,Food Technology Institute ITAL
Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos | Year: 2011

The objective of this research project was to study the drying of soymilk residue in a pneumatic flash dryer, using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), and to evaluate the quality of the dried residue. Soymilk residue, also known as okara, was provided by a Brazilian soymilk factory. RSM showed that for a 120 second drying cycle, the lower the residue moisture contents (y) obtained, the higher the recirculation rates (x 1), regardless of the air drying temperature (x 2), and it could be expressed by the equation y = 7.072 - 7.92x 1, with R2 = 92,92%. It is possible to obtain okara with 10% of moisture (dwb) under the condition x1=1.25, equivalent to RR = 61%, with air drying temperatures ranging from 252 °C to 308 °C. The dried okara obtained through Central Compound Rotational Design (CCRD) presented a centesimal composition similar to the okara dried in a tray dryer, known as the original okara. There were significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) in the Emulsifying Capacity (EC), Emulsion Stability (ES) and Protein Solubility (PS) between the dehydrated residues obtained. It was concluded that the flash drying of okara is technically feasible and that the physicochemical composition of the residue was not altered; on the contrary, the process promoted a positive effect on the technological functional properties.


Taniwaki M.H.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Teixeira A.A.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Teixeira A.R.R.,Assicafe Assessoria e Consultoria Agricola Ltda | Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Iamanaka B.T.,Food Technology Institute ITAL
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Defective coffee beans may contain toxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA) and other compounds which affect health. In the present work two coffee producing regions were studied: Cerrado in Minas Gerais and Sorocabana in São Paulo State, with the objective of verifying the presence of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA in the main defective coffee beans. Coffee samples were surface disinfected and plated directly onto Dichloran Glycerol Agar. Fungal species were isolated and identified. The coffee samples were analyzed for OTA and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipment. Aspergillus westerdijkiae and Aspergillus section Nigri were found in both regions, while Aspergillus carbonarius only in Cerrado-MG, especially in defective coffee beans. The sour and black defective beans had the highest OTA concentration being 11.3. μg/kg and 25.7. μg/kg, respectively. In the defective green (immature) beans, although having the highest proportion (38%), the presence of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA was low. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Pighinelli A.L.M.T.,University of Campinas | Ferrari R.A.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Miguelb A.M.R.O.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Parka K.J.,University of Campinas
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2011

The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25° to 110°C) and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm) on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25° to 30°C and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate) on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

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