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Kobori C.N.,University of Campinas | Huber L.S.,University of Campinas | Sarantopoulos C.I.G.L.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Rodriguez-Amaya D.B.,University of Campinas
Journal of Food Science

Minimally processed kale leaves were packed in passive modified atmosphere and stored at 3 conditions: 1 °C in the dark and 11 °C with or without light exposure. The products were evaluated during storage in terms of headspace gas composition, sensory attributes, flavonol, and carotenoid contents. The sensory quality decreased slightly during 17 d at 1 °C in the dark. At 11 °C, the vegetable shelf life was predicted to be 6 d in the dark and 3 d with light. Quercetin and kaempferol were stable during storage for 15 d at 1 °C in the absence of light. At 11 °C in the dark, quercetin was stable during 10 d, increasing slightly on the 8th day. Kaempferol decreased up to the 5th day but increased on the 8th day, decreasing again on the 10th day. After 5 d at 11 °C under light, the flavonol levels were significantly higher than those of the initial values. Neoxanthin and violaxanthin did not change significantly after 15 d at 1 °C in the dark. Lutein and β-carotene, however, decreased 7.1% and 11.3%, respectively. At 11 °C in the dark, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene decreased 16.1%, 13.2%, 24.1%, and 23.7% after 10 d, respectively. At 11 °C under light, neoxanthin and lutein had a slight increase while violaxanthin and β-carotene decreased 23.1% and 16.5% after 5 d. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists ®. Source

Barretto A.C.S.,Sao Paulo State University | Pacheco M.T.B.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
Food Science and Technology

The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding wheat fiber and partial pork back fat on the quality characteristics of bologna sausage. The compound central rotating design was used with treatments containing fixed levels of inulin (5%) and oat fiber (1%) and variable levels of wheat fiber (0-4%) and pork back fat (0-10%). The pH and protein were similar in all the treatments, the fat was lower than the control treatment and the moisture content was higher than the control treatment (CF) without fibers. The wheat fiber increased the hardness and reduced cohesiveness and scores were given for overall impression. We found that it was possible to prepare low-fat bologna sausage with the addition of 6.58% fiber (5% inulin, 1% oat fiber and 0.58% wheat fiber), whilst retaining good sensory acceptability, thus reducing the pork back fat levels by between 25 and 42.75%. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA. All rights reserved. Source

Vecina J.F.,University of Campinas | Oliveira A.G.,University of Campinas | Araujo T.G.,University of Campinas | Baggio S.R.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | And 3 more authors.
Life Sciences

Aims The search for natural agents that minimize obesity-associated disorders is receiving special attention. In this regard, the present study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) on body weight, lipid profile, blood glucose and insulin signaling in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Main methods Balb/C mice were fed either with standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD) and received concomitant treatment with CV for 12 consecutive weeks. Triglyceride, free fatty acid, total cholesterol and fractions of cholesterol were measured using commercial assay. Insulin and leptin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed. The expression and phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-1 and Akt were determined by Western blot analyses. Key findings Herein we demonstrate for the first time in the literature that prevention by CV of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in obese mice, as shown by increased glucose and insulin tolerance, is in part due to the improvement in the insulin signaling pathway at its main target tissues, by increasing the phosphorylation levels of proteins such as IR, IRS-1 and Akt. In parallel, the lower phosphorylation levels of IRS-1ser307 were observed in obese mice. We also found that CV administration prevents high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia by reducing triglyceride, cholesterol and free fatty acid levels. Significance We propose that the modulatory effect of CV treatment preventing the deleterious effects induced by high-fat diet is a good indicator for its use as a prophylactic-therapeutic agent against obesity-related complications. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Paterson R.R.M.,University of Minho | Lima N.,University of Minho | Taniwaki M.H.,Food Technology Institute ITAL
Food Research International

Coffee is very valuable. However, it is subjected to various pest and diseases of which mycotoxin contamination is of great importance in terms of the health of consumers and economic loss. The major compound of concern is ochratoxin A (OTA) which has statutory limits imposed on the commodity in, for example, the European Union. The concentrations of OTA appear often well within the limits and the situation is containable, although some surveys revealed levels higher than statutory limits and frequency of contamination was often high. The producing fungi are Aspergilli. Nevertheless, there remains some misidentification in the literature in relation to Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus westerdijkiae: other important producers are Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger. Coffee husks are high in OTA and are fortunately removed during processing. Beans obtained after falling on the soil and coffee which had been floated as part of processing, were reported as high in OTA and should be avoided. The presence of aflatoxins (AF) needs consideration. More work is required on the presence of fumonisins in coffee. The effect of climate change on mycotoxins in coffee requires urgent consideration as, for example, AF may become more problematic than OTA in 50. years. Finally, careful monitoring of coffee is essential to nurture this desirable commodity into the future. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Morgano M.A.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | Teixeira Martins M.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Teixeira Martins M.C.,University of Campinas | Rabonato L.C.,Food Technology Institute ITAL | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

A set of experiments was carried out to validate a method for inorganic contaminants in honeybee-collected pollen, consisting of digestion of the samples in a closed microwave-assisted system and quantification of 10 inorganic contaminants by ICP OES. Forty-three samples of Brazilian bee pollen, collected in southeastern Brazil during one year, were analyzed. Determination of these analytes is important both as bioindicators of pollution and to verify the safety of consuming the pollen itself. The method had satisfactory performance, with good accuracy and precision. The ranges of the mean levels were 10.4-268.0 mg/kg for Al, <0.01-1.38 mg/kg for As, 2.78-17.63 mg/kg for Ba, 0.003-0.233 mg/kg for Cd, <0.01-1.11 mg/kg for Co, <0.01-2.32 mg/kg for Cr, <0.10-1.13 mg/kg for Ni, <0.01-0.44 mg/kg for Pb, <0.035-1.33 mg/kg for Sb, and <0.0004-0.0068 mg/kg for Hg. Contamination seemed to occur in the following decreasing order: São Paulo > Minas Gerais > Espírito Santo. Generally higher levels of all studied contaminants were observed in samples produced in an urban site, compared to those of a rural site. Al, Cd, Co, and Pb tended to have higher levels during the dry months (July-October). Ingestion estimates showed that Al and As would have the highest contributions to the adult diet, reaching 27 and 8%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values, considering a daily portion of 25 g. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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