Food Surveys Research Group
Food Surveys Research Group
Moshfegh A.J.,Food Surveys Research Group |
Rhodes D.G.,Food Surveys Research Group |
Goldman J.D.,Food Surveys Research Group |
Clemens J.C.,Food Surveys Research Group
Nutrition Today | Year: 2017
Dietary intakes in childhood are one of several factors that influence food and beverage choices later in life. Nationally representative dietary data ofUS children aged 1 and 2 years (toddlers) (n = 469) participating in the "What We Eat in America" component of the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess food, beverage, and nutrient intakes. Dietary intakes were collected using 24-hour dietary recall interview conducted by proxy thatwas usually the mother.Mean and distribution of usual nutrient intakes, percentage meeting dietary reference intakes, meal and snack patterns, and intakes of foods and beverages were estimated. The energy intake of toddlers was 1335 kcal/d. Usual nutrient intakes of vitamins D and E were less than the recommended intake levels by 86% and 62% of toddlers, respectively. Almost all toddlers (96%) had usual intakes less than the recommendations for dietary fiber and potassium, and 71% exceeded the upper level for sodium. Mean daily intake of added sugars was 10% of daily energy intake, with approximately 40% of toddlers exceeding that level. Mean daily snack occasion of toddlers was 3.1, which contributed one-third of their daily energy intake. Beverages contributed one-fourth of their daily energy intake. On the basis of 1 day of dietary recall, milk, water, and 100% fruit juice were the top beverages consumed by toddlers. Soft drinks were consumed by 14% of toddlers. Grain products, protein foods, and mixed dishes were each consumed by at least three-fourths of the toddlers. A greater proportion of toddlers consumed fruit (71%) compared with vegetables (57%). Nearly 1 in 3 toddlers consumed candy, and 2 in 5 consumed cakes/cookies/pastries. More than one-third consumed savory snacks, including chips, popcorn, and pretzels, and an equal proportion consumed crackers. Although the dietary intakes of toddlers met the recommendations for many nutrients, the consumption of food and beverage choices that were not nutrient dense may merit concern. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cogswell M.E.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention |
Yuan K.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention |
Gunn J.P.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention |
Gillespie C.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention |
And 9 more authors.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | Year: 2014
Background: A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts.Methods: Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010.Results: U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (p<0.05). Among children who consumed a school meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%).Implications for Public Health Practice: Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children will be reduced by an average of about 75–150 mg per day and about 220–440 mg on days children consume school meals. © 2014, Department of Health and Human Services. All right reserved.
Sebastian R.S.,Food Surveys Research Group |
Enns C.W.,Food Surveys Research Group |
Goldman J.D.,Food Surveys Research Group |
Martin C.L.,Food Surveys Research Group |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015
Background: Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Objectives: Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. Methods: One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007-2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Results: Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P < 0.001) intakes of total flavonoids (275 mg/d) than non-Hispanic blacks (176 mg/d) and Hispanics (139 mg/d). Tea was the primary source (80%) of flavonoid intake. Regardless of whether the flavonoid contribution of tea was included, total HEI score and component scores for total fruit, whole fruit, total vegetables, greens and beans, seafood and plant proteins, refined grains, and empty calories increased (P < 0.001) across flavonoid intake quartiles. Conclusions: A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007- 2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and health. Findings suggest that diet quality, as measured by HEI, is positively associated with flavonoid intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.