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Charlton K.E.,University of Wollongong | Batterham M.J.,University of Wollongong | Buchanan L.M.,University of Wollongong | Mackerras D.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Mackerras D.,Charles Darwin University
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine the effect of adjustment for intraindividual variation on estimations of urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), prevalence of iodine deficiency and population distribution of iodine status. Setting: Community-dwelling older adults from New South Wales, Australia. Participants: 84 healthy men and women aged 60. 95 years were recruited prior to introduction of the mandatory iodine fortification programme. Primary and secondary outcome measures: UIC data were collected from three spot urine samples, each 1 week apart. Repeated measures analysis of variance were determined between-person (sb) and total (sobs) SDs. Adjusted UIC values were calculated as ((person's UIC.group mean)×(sb/s obs))+group mean, and a corrected UIC distribution was calculated. Results: The sb/sobs for using three samples and two samples were 0.83 and 0.79, respectively. Following adjustment for intraindividual variation, the proportion with UIC <50 μg/L reduced from 33% to 19%, while the proportion with UIC ≥100 μg/L changed from 21% to 17%. The 95th centile for UIC decreased from 176 to 136 μg/L. Adjustment by taking averages yielded a lesser degree of contraction in the distribution than the analysis of variance method. Conclusions: The addition of information about intraindividual variability has potential for increasing the interpretability of UIC data collected to monitor the iodine status of a population.


Fields B.A.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Reeve J.,NZL Ministry for Primary Industries | Bartholomaeus A.,University of Queensland | Bartholomaeus A.,University of Canberra | Mueller U.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Over the last 150. years a number of people in New Zealand have been incapacitated, hospitalised, or died from eating honey contaminated with tutin, a plant-derived neurotoxin. A feature of the most recent poisoning incident in 2008 was the large variability in the onset time of clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity (0.5-17. h). To investigate the basis of this variability a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken in which 6 healthy males received a single oral dose of tutin-containing honey giving a tutin dose of 1.8. μg/kg body weight. The serum concentration-time curve for all volunteers exhibited two discrete peaks with the second and higher level occurring at approximately 15 h post-dose. Two subjects reported mild, transient headache at a time post-dose corresponding to maximum tutin concentrations. There were no other signs or symptoms typical of tutin intoxication such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness or seizures. Pharmacokinetic analysis using a two-site absorption model resulted in a good fit to the observed concentration data. A novel analytical method subsequently revealed the presence of glycoside conjugates of tutin in addition to unconjugated tutin in honey. These pharmacokinetic data will be important to better define a safe maximum tutin concentration in honey. © 2014 .


Schulze A.,University of Heidelberg | Mills K.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Weiss T.S.,University of Regensburg | Urban S.,University of Heidelberg
Hepatology | Year: 2012

Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high species specificity and a distinct liver tropism. Within the liver, HBV replication occurs in differentiated and polarized hepatocytes. Accordingly, the in vitro HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and the human hepatoma cell line, HepaRG, is restricted to differentiated, hepatocyte-like cells. Though preparations of PHH contain up to 100% hepatic cells, cultures of differentiated HepaRG cells are a mixture of hepatocyte-like and biliary-like epithelial cells. We used PHH and HepaRG cells and compared the influence of virus inoculation dose, cell differentiation, and polarization on productive HBV infection. At multiplicities of genome equivalents (mge) >8,000, almost 100% of PHHs could be infected. In contrast, only a subset of HepaRG cells stained positive for HBcAg at comparable or even higher mge. Infection predominantly occurred at the edges of islands of hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells. This indicates a limited accessibility of the HBV receptor, possibly as a result of its polar sorting. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), a marker selectively transported to the apical (i.e., canalicular) cell membrane, revealed two polarization phenotypes of HepaRG cells. HBV infection within the islands of hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells preferentially occurred in cells that resemble PHH, exhibiting canalicular structures. However, disruption of cell-cell junctions allowed the additional infection of cells that do not display a PHH-like polarization. Conclusion: HBV enters hepatocytes via the basolateral membrane. This model, at least partially, explains the difference of PHH and HepaRG cells in infection efficacy, provides insights into natural HBV infection, and establishes a basis for optimization of the HepaRG infection system. © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Mackerras D.E.M.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Mackerras D.E.M.,Charles Darwin University | Singh G.R.,Charles Darwin University | Eastman C.J.,University of Sydney
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine the iodine status of participants in the Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study who resided in the Darwin Health Region (DHR) in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory prior to the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification of bread. Design, setting and participants: Participants in our study had been recruited at birth and were followed up at a mean age of 17.8 years. Spot urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine concentration at a reference laboratory. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) of residents of the DHR was calculated and compared with international criteria for iodine status. Analyses were conducted for subgroups living in urban areas (Darwin-Palmerston) and remote communities (rural with an Aboriginal council). We collected a repeat sample in a subset of participants to explore the impact of within-person variation on the results. Main outcome measure: MUIC for residents of the DHR. Results: Urine specimens were provided by 376 participants in the DHR. Overall MUIC was 58 μg/L when weighted to the 2006 Census population. Urban boys had higher values (MUIC = 77 μg/L) than urban and remote-dwelling non-pregnant girls (MUIC= 55 μg/L), but all these groups were classified as mildly iodine deficient. Remotedwelling boys had the lowest MUIC (47 μg/L, moderate deficiency). Pregnant girls and those with infants aged less than 6 months also had insufficient iodine status. Correction for within-person variation reduced the spread of the population distribution. Conclusions: Previously, iodine deficiency was thought to occur only in the southeastern states of Australia. This is the first report of iodine deficiency occurring in residents of the NT. It is also the first study of iodine status in a defined Indigenous population. Future follow-up will reassess iodine status in this group after the introduction of iodine fortification of bread.


Dalefield R.R.,Level 3 Communications | Gosse M.A.,Level 3 Communications | Mueller U.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of naturally-occurring plant toxins. Echimidine is one of the predominant PAs found in honeys produced in Australia and New Zealand. There is a lack of information on the oral toxicity of echimidine on which to base regulatory decisions concerning the risk to humans of these honeys. This GLP study was conducted to assess the subchronic dietary toxicity of echimidine to rats compared to that of lasiocarpine as a positive control. Wistar rats, 10/sex, were fed diets containing 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.5 mg/kg bw echimidine. Positive control groups, 10/sex, were fed diets containing 0.6, 1.2 or 2.5 mg/kg bw lasiocarpine. Neither PA had any effect on survival, food consumption, clinical signs, gross lesions, or histopathology. Consumption of lasiocarpine, but not echimidine, decreased bodyweight gain in males at ≥ 1.2 mg/kg bw, and in females at 2.5 mg/kg bw. Slight alterations in white cell counts and serum ALT concentrations at 2.5 mg/kg bw of both PAs were not clinically significant, had no histological correlates, and were considered to be of equivocal relevance. In conclusion, the subchronic No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for echimidine is 2.5 mg/kg bw/day, whereas, on the basis of a treatment-related decrease in bodyweight gain in males at 1.2 mg/kg bodyweight, the NOAEL for lasiocarpine is 0.6 mg/kg bw/day. © 2016


Mackerras D.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Powers J.,University of Newcastle | Boorman J.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Loxton D.,University of Newcastle | Giles G.G.,Cancer Epidemiology Center
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2011

Background: Iodine deficiency has re-emerged in Australia. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need higher iodine intakes (estimated average requirements: 160 μg/day and 190 μg/day) than non-pregnant women (100 μg/day) because iodine is critical for early infant development. The impact of iodine fortification of bread on women's iodine intake is evaluated by reproductive status using 2003 Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) food frequency data and projected onto 1995 National Nutrition Survey (NNS) daily food consumption data for women of child-bearing age. Methods: Recent iodine analyses of Australian foods were combined with reported intakes of key foods to estimate iodine intake before and after fortification for 665 pregnant, 432 zero to 6 months postpartum, 467 seven to 12 months postpartum and 7324 non-pregnant women. Differences in mean iodine intake between these groups were projected onto NNS estimates of total iodine intake for women of child-bearing age. Results: Pregnant and postpartum women reported eating more bread than did non-pregnant women. Mean iodine intakes (μg/day before; and after fortification) from key foods were higher in pregnant (78; 124), 0-6 months postpartum (75; 123) and 7-12 months postpartum (71; 117) than in non-pregnant women (65; 103). Projecting ALSWH results onto the NNS yields total mean iodine intakes of 167, 167, 160 and 146 for the same groups. Conclusion: Current iodine intakes are well below dietary recommendations. The impact of iodine fortification of bread would be greater for pregnant and postpartum women than has been previously estimated using general population intakes, but additional strategies to increase intakes by these groups are still needed.


Padula D.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Greenfield H.,University of Sydney | Cunningham J.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Kiermeier A.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | McLeod C.,South Australian Research And Development Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lewis J.L.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius. © 2012 The Author.


Cunningham J.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Sobolewski R.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2011

Food composition databases prepared for nutrition labelling have some important differences to other food composition databases. Nutrient values must be expressed in accordance with legal requirements for nutrition labelling in the country where it will be used. The database should include all the nutrients that must be declared in labels and contain data for ingredients (including additives) used in manufacturing. Data should be as current as possible and it may be necessary to update the databases before release. Information on typical measures, indicative weight changes during processing and retention factors (if including vitamins and minerals) will be required, as will explanatory material appropriate to the audience. Challenge areas for use of a labelling database include foods prepared by soaking or packing in salt or by deep frying, and estimation of vitamin levels. Limited Australian and New Zealand research suggests that label and analytical data for proximate nutrients, fatty acids and sodium agree in around 60% of cases or more; for added micronutrients, no more than 50% of values agree. However there is no research available to show whether labels prepared from a labelling database are more or less accurate than labels prepared using analysis. The Australian experience shows that it is possible to develop a labelling database suitable for many, but not all, foods and nutrients, but there is a lack of information to assess the quality of the data produced. © 2010.


Sobolewski R.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Cunningham J.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand | Mackerras D.,Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

Aim: This paper describes the differences between the NUTTAB and AUSNUT food composition databases now available in Australia. Method: The NUTTAB and AUSNUT food composition databases are described in detail by officers of Food Standards Australia New Zealand directly involved in the database management and development. The positions of Food Standards Australia New Zealand in terms of revisions and policy directions are given from an authoritative perspective. Results: Food Standards Australia New Zealand develops two different sets of food composition databases, NUTTAB and AUSNUT. NUTTAB is a reference database that contains primarily analysed data for Australian foods. AUSNUT is a survey database that contains only data that are directly relevant to the particular national nutrition survey for which it was developed. These databases are available free of change from the Food Standards Australia New Zealand website. Conclusions: Food Standards Australia New Zealand develops two distinct series of food composition databases. Users will need to be aware of the similarities and differences of each database type to be able to determine which is the most suitable for their needs. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Dietitians Association of Australia.

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