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Melintescu A.,Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering | Galeriu D.,Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering | Tucker S.,Babcock International | Kennedy P.,Food Standards Agency FSA | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

To improve the understanding of the environmental 14C behaviour, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinated a Tritium and C-14 Working Group (T&C WG) in its EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme. One of the scenarios developed in the frame of T&C WG involved the prediction of time dependent 14C concentrations in potato plants. The experimental data used in the scenario were obtained from a study in which potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Romano) were exposed to atmospheric 14CO2 in a wind tunnel. The observations were used to test models that predict temporal changes in 14C concentrations in leaves at each sampling time for each experiment and 14C concentrations in tubers at the final harvest of each experiment. The experimental data on 14C dynamics in leaves are poorly reproduced by most of the models, but the predicted concentrations in tubers are in good agreement with the observations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Campos C.J.A.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Kershaw S.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Lee R.J.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Morgan O.C.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Hargin K.,Food Standards Agency FSA
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2011

Rainfall and river flows are environmental variables influencing the microbial status of bivalve mollusc harvesting areas. This study investigated spatial and temporal relationships between rainfall, river flows and concentrations of Escherichia coli in mussels (Mytilus spp.) and Pacific oysters (C. gigas) from three harvesting areas in the Dart Estuary over the period 1996-2009. Mussels growing on the riverbed were found to be more contaminated than oysters growing in the water column. A step change in the levels of the microbial indicator was identified in both species from all harvesting areas. The highest levels of E. coli were detected when total rainfall exceeded 2 mm and water levels in the main tributaries exceeded the mean flow. The magnitude of response in levels of E. coli to these hydrological events varied between species and monitoring points, but was consistently higher between the 3rd and 4th days after the rainfall event. This lag time is assumed to result from catchment topography and geology determining peak levels of runoff at the headwaters 12-24 h after rainfall events. It is considered that future risk management measures may include sampling targeting hydrograph events. © Crown Copyright 2011. Source


Zvonova I.,Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Krajewski P.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection | Berkovsky V.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Ammann M.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2010

Within the project "Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety" (EMRAS) organized by the IAEA in 2003 experimental data of 131I measurements following the Chernobyl accident in the Plavsk district of Tula region, Russia were used to validate the calculations of some radioecological transfer models. Nine models participated in the inter-comparison. Levels of 137Cs soil contamination in all the settlements and 131I/137Cs isotopic ratios in the depositions in some locations were used as the main input information. 370 measurements of 131I content in thyroid of townspeople and villagers, and 90 measurements of 131I concentration in milk were used for validation of the model predictions. A remarkable improvement in models performance comparing with previous inter-comparison exercise was demonstrated. Predictions of the various models were within a factor of three relative to the observations, discrepancies between the estimates of average doses to thyroid produced by most participant not exceeded a factor of ten. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Purnell G.,UK Institute of Food Research | James C.,UK Institute of Food Research | James S.J.,UK Institute of Food Research | Howell M.,Food Standards Agency FSA | Corry J.E.L.,University of Bristol
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to directly compare the antimicrobial effect of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), chlorine dioxide (CD), peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) on naturally occurring Campylobacter, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. on the breast and neck skin of chicken carcasses treated post-evisceration and prior to primary chilling. Naturally contaminated Campylobacter-positive chicken carcasses, obtained from a commercial processing line immediately post-evisceration but prior to the inside-outside wash, were treated in a purpose-built automated spray rig. Replicated batch treatments for 15 and 30 s of chemical and water-only spray wash were performed. Untreated control carcasses were examined to provide baseline data for the initial numbers. Numbers of colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of skin excised from neck and breast locations were determined using selective agar media. For analysis, the results were subdivided into six microbe type/skin location combinations with each subdivision ranked by the following: (a) CFU remaining after treatment, (b) mean reductions and (c) the proportional change in numbers of samples below the limit of detection (LoD). The three groups of bacteria responded similarly to the chemicals applied. Campylobacter spp. were no more susceptible than the other two groups. No single chemical treatment gave the best effect across all ranking methods. Generally, ASC and TSP were more effective in reducing microbial counts than PAA, with CD and water having the least effect. A 30-s chemical treatment was usually more effective than a 15-s treatment. Where only a short (15 s) spray time is possible, ASC appears to be the most effective of the chemicals tested. Where longer treatments are possible, TSP becomes the most effective choice. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Mertena C.,European Food Safety Authority EFSA | Ferrari P.,European Food Safety Authority EFSA | Bakker M.,Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM | Boss A.,Food Standards Agency FSA | And 7 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

In 2009 competent organisations in the European Union provided the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with data from the most recent national dietary survey at the level of individuals' consumption. Twenty different Member States provided EFSA with data from 22 different national dietary surveys, with consumption figures for adults and, when available, for children. Member States' dietary data were assembled into the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. In this paper an overview of the methodologies and protocols employed in the different national dietary surveys is provided. Specifically, details about dietary assessment methods, interview administration, sampling design, portion size estimation, dietary software, evaluation of under-reporting and non-dietary information collected are described. This information is crucial to evaluate the level of accuracy of food consumption data and to anticipate and acknowledge the utmost important sources of heterogeneity of national databases included in the Comprehensive Database. The Comprehensive Database constitutes a unique resource for the estimation of consumption figures across the European Union and represents a useful tool to assess dietary exposure to hazardous substances and nutrient intake in Europe. Nevertheless, the many substantial methodological differences that characterise the Comprehensive Database are acknowledged and critically discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

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