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Samadi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Azadbakht L.,Food Security Research Center | Feizi A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI) or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI) relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI) and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2kg/m2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2kg/m2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ±103 and 951±152mg/d, respectively (P<0.01). After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

Nazari B.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Nazari B.,Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute | Asgary S.,Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute | Azadbakht L.,Food Security Research Center | Azadbakht L.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian's junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. Results: In this study stearic acid (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA) is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t) with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t) has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%). Conclusion: The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Heidari-Beni M.,Food Security Research Center | Azizi-Soleiman F.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Ardalan G.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Background: Reference percentile curves are usually used as a screening tool to determine growth disorders. Anthropometric indices are population-dependent and may differ according to ethnicity, dietary pattern and lifestyle habits. This study aims to compare the curves of anthropometric measures obtained in two national studies conducted among Iranian children and adolescents in 2003-2004 and 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures obtained in two nationwide surveys conducted in 10-18-year-old Iranian students were compared. Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) Chart Maker Pro program was used to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles and to smooth and fit the model. Results: In 2003-2004, the mean and standard deviation (SD) of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were 18.98 ± 3.81 kg/m2 and 67.50 ± 11.05 cm in boys; and 19.44 ± 3.78 kg/m2 and 66.55 ± 9.89 cm in girls, respectively. In 2009-2010, the corresponding figures were 19.16 ± 4.07 kg/m2, 69.42 ± 11.43 cm, 19.63 ± 4.11 kg/m2, and 67.29 ± 9.69 cm, respectively. Height curves did not show considerable changes in two studies. Comparison of two series of studies showed that the weight, BMI, WC, and waist-to-height ratio were lower in adolescent girls than boys especially in higher percentiles. Moreover, in both genders, weight, BMI, and WC percentiles decreased. Conclusion: The growth charts of Iranian children and adolescents aged 10-18 years have changed over 5 years. The reference growth curves change over time in the pediatric age group, repeated surveys should be conducted to update the age- and gender-specific reference curves in different populations. © 2014 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences(IUMS). All rights reserved.

Askari G.,Food Security Research Center | Ghiasvand R.,Food Security Research Center | Paknahad Z.,Food Security Research Center | Sharifirad G.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Hajishafiei M.,Food Security Research Center
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: quercetin is a bioflavonoid occurs in many food items. Some previous studies on quercetin showed the inconsistent results on exercise performance and muscle damage in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance and muscle damage indices in student athletes. Methods: this placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 male students for 8 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: a) quercetin (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day placebo), b) quercetin+ vitamin C (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day vitamin C), vitamin C (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day vitamin C), and placebo (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day placebo). Time to exhaustion (TTE) for measuring performance, aspartate transaminase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK) for measuring muscle damage and body fat percent (BFP) were measured before and after intervention. Results: CK levels reduced in group 1 significantly (P=0.045) and BFP reduced in group 1, 3, and 4, significantly, too (P=0.018, P=0.013, and P=0.043, respectively). Whereas statistically significant changes between groups were not observed for TTE, AST, CK, and BFP after 8 weeks of intervention. Conclusions: supplementation with quercetin and vitamin C for 8 weeks did not improve exercise performance but reduced muscle damage and body fat percent in healthy subjects.

Gholi Z.,Food Security Research Center | Heidari-Beni M.,Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable Disease | Feizi A.,Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center | Iraj B.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Askari G.,Food Security Research Center
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | Year: 2016

Background: Different populations have shown various patterns of association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and body composition parameters and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current study aimed at investigating the differences between persons with prediabetes and healthy people in terms of CVD risk factors including body composition parameters, blood pressure, and lipid profile in a sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In a case-control setting, a sample containing 386 (193 prediabetic subjects and 193 normal subjects) of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55 years were investigated. Samples were assessed using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Body composition parameters, blood pressure, glucose parameters, and lipid profile were measured and compared between the two groups. Results: Prediabetic patients had higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat (BF) in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, prediabetic subject had a higher intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and cholesterol and it seems that these patients had an unhealthy dietary intake (P < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.007), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (P = 0.021) were higher in prediabetic patients (P < 0.05) than in the controls. Conclusion: Both the risk factors of CVD and body composition parameters were different between the prediabetic and normal groups; total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and FBS were predictors of the risk of prediabetes. © 2016 Journal of Research in Medical Sciences.

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