Nutrition and Food Security Association ANSA

Maputo, Mozambique

Nutrition and Food Security Association ANSA

Maputo, Mozambique

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Kulathinal S.,University of Helsinki | Freese R.,University of Helsinki | Korkalo L.,University of Helsinki | Ismael C.,Nutrition and Food Security Association ANSA | Mutanen M.,University of Helsinki
Nutrition Research | Year: 2016

Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n = 386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r > 0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r > 0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r > 0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r > 0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (P < .001) and positively with MUAC (P = .007). Stepwise regressions showed that waist circumference, MUAC, weight, and handgrip were important nutritional status indicators in the models using hemoglobin, serum albumin, ferritin, zinc, and plasma retinol concentrations as dependent variables. MUAC could be a valuable anthropometric marker of the overall nutritional status of adolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Freese R.,University of Helsinki | Korkalo L.,University of Helsinki | Vessby B.,Uppsala University | Tengblad S.,Uppsala University | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. Copyright © The Authors 2015.


Mutanen M.,University of Helsinki | Freese R.,University of Helsinki | Vessby B.,Uppsala University | Korkalo L.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2016

We explored if linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) will be efficiently converted to arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the adolescent girls (aged 15–18 years, n=145) in Mozambique consuming habitually low fat diet and if low iron and/or zinc status predicts the conversion. Total fat, LA and ALA intakes were 15–19%, 1.2–3.5% and 0.2–0.3% of energy, respectively in three areas. Iron and zinc intake varied between 9.6–12.3 mg/day and 3.6–5.0 mg/day. Significant negative association of plasma AA was found with plasma LA and ALA and significant positive association with serum ferritin. Plasma DHA associated, negatively with plasma LA and ALA. We showed that in a population with low intakes of LA and ALA, the proportions of phospholipid LA and ALA determines the relative proportions of AA and DHA and low iron status probably attenuates the conversion of LA to AA. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


PubMed | Uppsala University, University of Helsinki and Nutrition and Food Security Association ANSA
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18% of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20:3n-9):arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

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