Research Institute of Food Science and Technology

Mashhad, Iran

Research Institute of Food Science and Technology

Mashhad, Iran
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Niknia N.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology | Kadkhodaee R.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2017

Gum tragacanth (GT) gels are usually formed by using chemical crosslinkers which cause safety concerns owing to their toxicity. This study introduces a novel and safe method for gelation of GT in the presence of small amounts of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) followed by successive freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles. Gel formation was performed at two GT: PVA mixing ratios (1:1 and 3:1), four F-T consecutive cycles and two different thawing temperatures (25 and 5 °C). Gel fraction, syneresis as well as mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the resultant gels were then studied. Gel fraction and mechanical properties improved by increasing F-T cycles and decreasing thawing temperature. Gel fraction increased by increasing the number of F-T cycles and decreasing the thawing temperature. Syneresis increased by increasing F-T cycles at GT: PVA mixing ratio of 1:1; whilst it was diminished at GT: PVA mixing ratio of 3:1. Microstructural observations by SEM confirmed mechanical properties. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Mahdavee Khazaei K.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Ghorbani M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Hemmati Kakhki A.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

In this work, anthocyanin stability and color of encapsulated freeze-dried saffron petal's extract with various matrices consisting gum Arabic (AG) and maltodextrin (M7 and M20) were studied. Total anthocyanins of powders and color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H and TCD) were measured immediately after production and during storage up to 10 weeks by pH differential method and computer vision, respectively. Different compounds of wall materials did not show any significant differences in terms of stabilizing anthocyanins (P < 0.01) and no significant decrease in anthocyanin content of the powders was observed after storage. The efficiency order of wall materials considering total color differences (TCD) was AG > M20 > M7. By evaluating 3D surface and Cox trace plots it was revealed that wall formulas which had the lowest amount of AG and highest amounts of M20 and M7 showed the lowest total color differences after storage (P < 0.05). To conclude, microencapsulation by freeze drying could be recommended as a suitable method for stabilizing anthocyanins of saffron petal's extract. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Salarbashi D.,Islamic Azad University at Sabzevar | Tajik S.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Ghasemlou M.,Michigan State University | Shojaee-Aliabadi S.,National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rajabi H.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Ghorbani M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Sadeghi Mahoonak A.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Rajabzadeh G.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

Saffron as the world's most expensive spice is very sensitive and loses its active compounds in exposure to environmental conditions. In this work, microencapsulation of saffron extract by various biopolymers was studied as an effective way to preserve its active compounds. Emulsions with a constant ratio of saffron extract/wall material of 1:20 and two levels of total solids (TS of 30 and 40%), were prepared using a homogenizer, and then spray dried. Powders were characterized in terms of powder yield, encapsulation efficiency, and retention of saffron active components, microstructure, and moisture content. Retention of picrocrocin, safranal and crocin after spray drying was analyzed by measuring absorbance at 257, 330 and 440nm, respectively. It was observed that a mixture with 40% TS consisting of maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin in the weight ratio of 0.94:0.05:0.01 retained the highest amount of picrocrocin, safranal and crocin, by retention values of 90.06, 80.37, and 91.03%, respectively. Both encapsulation efficiency and powder yield were positively influenced by total solids content, which could be related to the emulsion viscosity and droplet size. To conclude, a mixture of maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin was efficient for saffron extract encapsulation by spray drying. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Raei M.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology | Rajabzadeh G.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology | Zibaei S.,Razi Institute | Jafari S.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Sani A.M.,Islamic Azad University at Qūchān
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2015

Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein, playing several biological roles. The main goal of our work was to nanoencapsulate the isolated lactoferrin from camel milk through alginate nanocapsuls. We studied the influence of alginate concentration (0.2 and 0.5. w/w%) and encapsulation method (thermal vs. non-thermal treatment) on the encapsulation efficiency, zeta potential, particle size and release of lactoferrin from nanocapsuls. Our results revealed in 0.8 and 0.9. M NaCl fractions, lactoperoxidase was present. So these fractions were not passed to further experiments. On average, we measured the lactoferrin content to be 0.5. g/l within the original camel milk. In general, higher alginate concentration resulted in higher encapsulation efficiency and nanocapsuls prepared with thermal treatment had a higher efficiency (almost 100%) along with smaller particle sizes (mostly. <. 100. nm). By evaluating the release of lactoferrin from nanocapsuls, it was revealed that there was no release at the first 30. min in both pH values (2 and 7). This could be particularly useful since lactoferrin would be maintained intact within stomach conditions and it can reach lower gastrointestinal tract to be delivered safely into the body. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Norouzi M.,Islamic Azad University at Neyshabur | Afrasiabi Garekani A.,Islamic Azad University at Neyshabur | Afrasiabi Garekani A.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
Ceramics International | Year: 2014

This paper focuses on the structure and corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel coated by inorganic ZrO2, hybrid ZrO 2-PMMA, and combined inorganic-hybrid films. The coatings were deposited by a particulate sol-gel spin-coating route, using carboxymethyl cellulose as a nanoparticle dispersant. The electrochemical evaluations were conducted in a simulated body fluid, via potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopic experiments. According to the results, the hybrid coating presented a better corrosion protection compared to the inorganic coating, due to a lesser density of structural defects. However, the best corrosion resistance was found for a combined coating which consists of an inorganic bottom layer and a hybrid top layer, due to a desirable compromise of good adhesion and low defect density. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.


Ale Ahmad A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Abrishamifar A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Samadi S.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
IET Power Electronics | Year: 2012

The low-frequency current ripple that always appears at the input of the single-phase DC/AC inverters decreases the lifetime of DC voltage sources, such as fuel cells and chemical batteries. In this study, based on series and parallel feedback theory, a proportional-integral (PI) controller is designed for the front-end boost converter in two-stage power converters. This controller increases the output impedance of the boost converter, which reduces the low-frequency current ripple at the input of this two-stage converter. Since the designed controller corrupts the dynamic response of the boost converter, the DC-link voltage severely over/undershoots in step load conditions. Overcoming this issue by employing a non-linear gain in the forward path is shown. By applying this proposed technique, the output voltage over/undershoot stays in an acceptable range. Therefore both the low-frequency input current ripple and the DC-link over/undershoot problems disappear simultaneously without employing any additional equipment, especially a bulky DC capacitor. The simulation and experimental results for a 2.5 kW prototype confirm the performance of the proposed idea. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012.


Kayvanfar V.,Mazandaran University of Science and Technology | Kayvanfar V.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology | Zandieh M.,Shahid Beheshti University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2012

This paper addresses an economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP) for manufacturing environments regarding slack costs and deteriorating items using the extended basic period approach under Power-of-Two (PoT) policy. The purpose of this research is to determine an optimal batch size for a product and minimizing total related costs to such a problem. The cost function consists of three components, namely, setup cost, holding cost includes deteriorating factor, and slack cost. The ELSP is concerned with the scheduling decision of n items and lot sizing. Avoiding schedule interference is the main problem in ELSP. The used PoT policy ensures that the replenishment cycle of each item to be integer and this task reduces potential schedule interferences. Since the ELSP is shown as an NP-hard problem, an imperialist competitive algorithm is employed to provide good solutions within reasonable computational times. Computational results show that the proposed approach can efficiently solve such complicated problems. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012.


Shahgholian N.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology | Rajabzadeh G.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

In this study, gum arabic (GA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used for encapsulation of poorly water-soluble curcumin (CN) by complex coacervation method. To optimize coacervate formulation, three factors including pH (3.7-4.2), BSA/GA weight ratio (3:1, 2:1, 1:1) and CN content (1000-5000 μg), at three levels were examined in central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic polynomial equation was used for encapsulation efficiency (EE) optimization. The complex coacervation between GA and BSA was restricted to a narrow pH range, where both molecules carry maximum opposite charges. Optimum conditions were found at BSA/GA weight ratio of 2:1 and pH 3.7. Encapsulation efficiency in this condition was found to be around 92%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a sponge-like coacervate phase and showed the size in the range of 40-80 μm. Further characterization of dried coacervates was performed using XRD and DSC. Penetration test showed that among three mentioned variables, biopolymers ratio had a dominant effect on texture. This study showed that the BSA/GA emulsification-coacervation is an efficient and promising technique for CN encapsulation according to encapsulation efficiency and facility of the method. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Shanbedi M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Zeinali Heris S.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Maskooki A.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology | Eshghi H.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications | Year: 2015

According to the response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical analysis of laminar forced convective heat transfer behavior of the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-deionized water nanofluid was carried out using a horizontal circular tube under constant wall heat flux. Sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and gum Arabic (GA) were used as surfactants to disperse MWCNT in the deionized water in order to synthesize MWCNT-deionized water nanofluids. MWCNT-deionized water nanofluids in the presence of different surfactants and MWCNT were prepared at various weight ratios (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1). The properties of stability, dispersion, and wettability were then studied. According to the results, MWCNT-deionized water nanofluid in the presence of GA at a ratio of 1:1 was selected as the best sample. Nanofluids at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1% wt% were then prepared. According to the statistical model (RSM), a total of 15 experiments were tested under the laminar flow regime and a flow rate of 171.4-545.4 ml/min, concentration of 0-0.1 wt%, and a magnetic field 0-400 G. The maximum heat transfer coefficient (1,600.1 W/m2K) was obtained at a concentration of 0.09wt%wt, a flow rate of 301.3 ml/min, and a magnetic field of 400 G. The experimental results are in agreement with the results obtained by RSM method, confirming the validity and responsiveness of the method. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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