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Vosough P.R.,Islamic Azad University at Quchan | Sani A.M.,Islamic Azad University at Quchan | Mehraban M.,Islamic Azad University at Mashhad | Karazhyan R.,Food Science and Technology Institute
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2014

Purpose: Since a sound detoxification method is needed for controlling aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry, this study was performed. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted to examine the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG to remove AFB1 from liquid media. The binding of AFB1 to Lb. rhamnosus GG was studied for viable, heat-killed and acid-killed bacteria. AFB1 at concentrations (5, 10 and 20 μg/l) was added to the bacterial culture (109 cfu/ml) in MRS broth medium and incubated at 25°C for 4, 12 and 24 h. The aflatoxin-binding capacity of the strain was quantified by the amount of unbound AFB1 using ELISA technique. Findings: Results showed the AFB1-binding capacity of viable, heat-killed and acid-killed bacteria was about 43, 49 and 50 percent, respectively. The percentage of AFB1 removed was the highest amount in low (5 μg/l) and high (20 μg/l) concentrations, and there was no significant difference between them (p=0.05). These findings suggest that lactic acid bacteria can be exploited as an approach to detoxification of aflatoxins from foods. Practical implications: This method is safe because non-viable bacteria have more ability to remove toxin than viable bacteria, and also it is an effective method with 50 percent approximately toxin removal. Originality/value: Since there has been no research on the ability of this strain on the removal of AFB1, the authors assessed the ability of the strain in high levels of AFB1. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Moghadam H.D.,Islamic Azad University at Quchan | Sani A.M.,Islamic Azad University at Quchan | Sangatash M.M.,Food Science and Technology Institute
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal effect of the essential oil obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides L on two fungi species including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined for the essential oil at 10 different concentrations (i.e. 25,000, 12,500, 6250, 3125, 1562.5, 781.25, 390.625, 195.31, 97.65, and 48.82 μg/ml). Finally, the effect of the essential oil at six levels (6250, 3125, 1600, 800, 400, and 196 μg/ml) was investigated on the growth and activity of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and also toxin production of these species in maize at 0.97 aw and 25°C after 29 days. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) content was assayed by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay technique. Results showed that essential oil of Z. clinopodioides was found more effective on A. parasiticus than A. flavus in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Z. clinopodioides oil exhibited the same MIC value in the liquid medium against all fungal strains (48.82 μg/ml), while it showed different activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus with MFC values of 781.25 and 390.625 μg/ml respectively. Under storage condition in maize, AFB1 production was significantly (p < 0.05) repressed at the concentration of 6250 μg/ml for A. flavus and 6250 and 3125 μg/ml for A. parasiticus. At the lower concentrations, the AFB1 production increased gradually. The results of the present study indicated that the essential oil of Z. clinopodioides had significant antifungal activity (p < 0.05); therefore, it can be used as an antifungal agent in the food and medicinal industries. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Vosough P.R.,Islamic Azad University at Quchan | Sani A.M.,Islamic Azad University at Quchan | Sangatash M.M.,Food Science and Technology Institute | Karazhyan R.,Food Science and Technology Institute
BioTechnology: An Indian Journal | Year: 2013

Biological decontamination of mycotoxins using microorganisms is one of the well known strategies for the management of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. In this study, the interaction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in cottonseed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG was investigated for the first time. AFB1 at concentrations (5, 10 and 20 μg/l) was added to the cottonseed meal in buffer phosphate solution and then bacterial culture (109 CFU/ml) in MRS broth medium was added to the solution and incubated at 25°C for 4, 12 and 24 hrs. The aflatoxin binding capacity of the strain was quantified by the amount of unbound AFB1 using ELISA technique. Results showed the binding capacity of viable, heat killed and acid killed bacteria respectively 44, 47 and 49%. Removal of AFB1 by this strain was a slow process with approximately 41% AFB1 removal at both 12 and also 24 hrs. The primary concentration of AFB1 did not influence the efficacy of detoxification (p>0.05). These findings further support the ability of specific strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind feed contaminants. © 2013 Trade Science Inc.-INDIA. Source


de Souza C.F.V.,Food Science and Technology Institute | Venzke J.G.,Food Science and Technology Institute | Rosa R.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Henriques J.A.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2011

The present study aimed to submit the transglutaminase (TGase) from a Bacillus circulans strain isolated from the Amazon environment to in vivo and in vitro toxicological evaluations in order to assess its safety in food. The in vivo assay was assessed using male Wistar rats in a subacute 14 day oral feeding test using a liquid enzyme preparation administered to 150 U kg b.wt. day-1. The evaluation of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenic effects of this microbial TGase was carried out using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts cultured cells. No evidence of short term in vivo toxicity was found for the enzymatic preparation in the subacute 14 day oral toxicity study using white Wistar rats models, daily treated with 150 U kg b.wt. day-1 of TGase preparation. Furthermore, there were no statistical differences between the groups for relative weight gain and for hematological and clinical chemistry values. Histopathological examination of liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, adrenal glands, heart, lungs and brain did not reveal any treatment-related changes. In addition, it was not verified any evidence of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenic effects of the simple application of 150 U treatment-1 of this microbial TGase on Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts cultured cells. It can be concluded that no safety concerns were identified in this study for the BcTGase preparation produced under controlled cultivation conditions. Present results suggest that the microbial TGase from B. circulans BL32 is safe for food applications and has a potential for its industrial use. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Shin K.,Food Science and Technology Institute | Aoyama I.,The Nippon Dental University | Yamauchi K.,Food Science and Technology Institute | Abe F.,Food Science and Technology Institute | Yaegaki K.,The Nippon Dental University
Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology | Year: 2014

Volatile sulfur compounds produced by oral bacteria are known to be responsible for oral malodor. In this study, 20 volunteers without periodontitis were divided into malodor (n=10, H2S > 1.5 ng/10 ml air or CH3SH > 0.5 ng/10 ml air) and control (n=10) groups, based on a gas chromatography analysis of concentrations of volatile sulfur compounds in their mouth air. The total number of bacteria in whole saliva and tongue coating samples was analyzed by quantitative PCR, and the relative abundance of bacterial species was determined by targeted pyrosequencing of DNA encoding the V5-6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. The total number of bacteria in tongue coating suspensions analyzed by quantitative PCR was significantly higher in the malodor group compared to the control group. Total reads of 15,581 and 298,079 were yielded by pyrosequencing of saliva and tongue coating samples, respectively. These sequences were assigned to taxons by BLAST searches against reference sequences of the Human Oral Microbiome Database based on ≥ 97% homology. Percentages of Peptostreptococcus stomatis and Capnocytophaga sputigena in saliva, as well as Clostridiales sp. oral taxon 85 and P. stomatis in tongue coating, were significantly higher in the malodor group. In contrast, the percentage of saliva samples with Porphyromonas endodontalis was significantly lower in the malodor group. Estimated numbers of Lachnospiraceae sp. oral taxon 82, Eubacterium infirmum, P. stomatis, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium periodonticum, Prevotella sp. oral taxon 474, Mogibacterium diversum, Solobacterium moorei, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in tongue coating samples were significantly higher in the malodor group. These results indicate that the bacterial load of several commensal species in tongue coating correlates with the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. © 2013 Shin K, et al. Source

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