He K.,Michigan State University |
Zhou H.-R.,Food Science and Human Nutrition |
Pestka J.J.,Michigan State University
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2012
The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Harte J.,Food Science and Human Nutrition
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010
Background: Instrumental analyses have shown that non-vented bio-based containers made from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have the capability to enhance blueberry shelf life as comparedwith commercial vented petroleum-based clamshell containers. However, consumer preference has not been explored so far. In this study, two sensory evaluations, triangle and paired preference tests, were performed after storing fruit in both containers at 3 and 10 °C for 7 and 14 days. In addition, physicochemical analyses were performed after each tasting in order to correlate instrumental findings with consumer preference. Results: The results of the triangle test showed the capability of the consumer to differentiate (P ≤ 0.001) between blueberries from different packages at both storage temperatures. A consumer preference for flavour, texture, external appearance and overall quality (P ≤ 0.001) of blueberries packaged in PLA containers was observed in the paired comparison test. The instrumental analyses showed that blueberries in the PLA packages exhibited a weight loss below the limit formarketable life, a stable soluble solid content and titratable acidity and no fungal growth during storage. Conclusion: Consumers distinguished between blueberries from different packages and preferred those packaged in the PLA containers. The instrumental analyses showed that the usable life of the berries was extended in the PLA containers. A correlation between consumer preference and instrumental evaluations was found. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
PubMed | Food Science and Human Nutrition., Guangdong Pharmaceutical College, North Carolina State University, University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
Nanomedicines (NMs) offer new solutions for cancer diagnosis and therapy. However, extension of progression-free interval and overall survival time achieved by Food and Drug Administration-approved NMs remain modest. To develop next generation NMs to achieve superior anticancer activities, it is crucial to investigate and understand the correlation between the physicochemical properties of NMs (particle size in particular) and their interactions with biological systems to establish criteria for NM optimization. Here, we systematically evaluated the size-dependent biological profiles of three monodisperse drug-silica nanoconjugates (NCs; 20, 50, and 200 nm) through both experiments and mathematical modeling and aimed to identify the optimal size for the most effective anticancer drug delivery. Among the three NCs investigated, the 50-nm NC shows the highest tumor tissue retention integrated over time, which is the collective outcome of deep tumor tissue penetration and efficient cancer cell internalization as well as slow tumor clearance, and thus, the highest efficacy against both primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
News Article | November 6, 2016
Blueberries, and berries in general, are among foods labeled as "diabetes superfoods" by the American Association of Diabetes. Food science researchers at the University of Illinois have found that fermenting berries may improve their antidiabetic potential even more. Recent research at the U of I includes the development of an alcohol-free blueberry-blackberry "wine" that those suffering from diabetes -- who typically must avoid alcohol -- can enjoy, while potentially reducing the effects of Type 2 diabetes. "Unfortunately the number of people with diabetes is increasing astronomically around the world," says Elvira de Mejia, a food chemist in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at U of I. "There are 100 million people around the world who have diabetes and that is increasing, without counting the ones who may be pre-diabetic and not know it." Previous research has shown that dietary blueberries may play a role in reducing hyperglycemia in obese mice, therefore de Mejia and colleagues wanted to determine if a fermented, dealcoholized blueberry-blackberry beverage would enhance the potential of the phenolic compounds in the berries that are responsible for reducing diabetic markers. A new study shows that the fermented berry beverage did reduce the development of obesity and blood glucose levels in mice on a high-fat diet. The researchers had already determined that the berries, when fermented at low temperatures, resulted in an improved and higher concentration of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins, found in the pigments of fruits such as blueberries, grapes, and apples, have been shown to promote insulin sensitivity, decrease blood glucose levels in the blood, and enhance insulin secretion. "We know that fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, and berries are good, but here we explain that after fermentation we improve and increase the concentration of these pigments [anthocyanins] and they are very high antioxidant components that benefit the body," de Mejia says. A previous cell culture study with the alcohol-free blueberry-blackberry wine, showed good results toward inhibiting enzymes related to glucose absorption "In this in vivo study, as we increased the concentration of these anthocyanin-enriched extractions from blueberries and blackberries we saw an improvement in the uptake of glucose, meaning that the animals with the increased concentration were not as much in a state of hyperglycemia as the other animals." The beverage included a ratio of 70 percent fermented blackberries to 30 percent fermented blueberries. The berries were collected from varieties grown at U of I's Dixon Springs Agricultural Research Station in southern Illinois. Alcohol was removed from the beverage by rotoevaporation and was replaced with water. Some of the sugars left over after fermentation were also removed in the process. "We optimized the best ratio between blueberries and blackberries. Blackberries are very unique and I think that's one of the reasons why we selected a high concentration of them in this study. Blackberries have a very specific profile of anthocyanins, and that was amazing at lowering the absorption of glucose in this case," de Mejia says. During the study, groups of mice with diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia were given the fermented berry beverage or the beverage with higher or lower enriched concentrations of the anthocyanins (0.1x, 1x, or 2x). Another group was given sitagliptin, a commonly used medication for diabetes, and another group was given water only. All groups ate the same diet, calories, and amount of sugars otherwise. While benefits were seen in all groups drinking the fermented beverage, de Mejia says the group on the highest concentration of anthocyanins (2x) showed the greatest results, comparable to what was observed in the group on sitagliptin. This included no increase in body weight, which de Mejia says was a surprise. "That was not our objective really, we were just looking for markers of diabetes," she says. "But it was very impressive to see." The researchers also observed that glucose was deposited into tissue more than absorbed by and present in the blood, as well. "You want to avoid high glucose in the blood stream, and you want uptake into muscle, liver, and organs, and to keep the level in plasma and blood normal. We saw a reduction of glucose in the blood with the beverage, even in the beverage before it was enhanced," de Mejia says. They also saw an effect on oxidative stress in the obese mice. "We saw that in the animals on 2x the enriched anthocyanins, the oxidative species went down, meaning they were kind of protected against oxidation. From that stand point, it was very positive looking at the oxidative stress of the animals because that can damage protein and DNA." Regarding the mechanism of action in reducing the diabetic effects, de Mejia says that the antioxidant power of the anthocyanins plays a very important role. "Markers of inflammation went down too. That's very, very, important. They are correlated. With obesity, less fat means less inflammation, and less oxidative stress. I think it is more toward that pathway of lowering oxidative stress and inflammation and lowering fat. It was very surprising to us," she adds. Producing this berry wine, complete with the benefits of fermentation but without the alcohol, provides an opportunity for wine makers, de Mejia says. "There are some bigger wineries/companies that are producing dealcoholized wine for diabetics, but from grapes. It is available in California, for example. I think the novelty of this work is mainly the combination of the blackberries and blueberries and the concentration of anthocyanins as part of the pigment. But it is perfectly doable and I hope that companies can see that there is a market. And it's delicious," she adds. While the berry wine may not be able to replace medications for diabetics, de Mejia says it could help reduce the amount of medication needed; always under the doctor's supervision and approval. "There needs to be more studies to see how the anthocyanins work in the presence of medication, to see if they work synergistically, for example. Then, maybe, you could decrease the amount of the drug. All of these drugs for diabetes have adverse effects after so many years of use, even the safest ones. "We need to consider diet, exercise, lowering body weight, and all the different strategies that the American Association of Diabetes recommends, and maybe in the long run, of course with approval of a physician, you could decrease the level of the drug to keep glucose under control."
Fang R.-S.,Zhejiang University |
Dong Y.-C.,Zhejiang University |
Chen F.,Zhejiang University |
Chen Q.-H.,Food Science and Human Nutrition
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2015
Rice wine is a traditional Chinese fermented alcohol drink. Spontaneous fermentation with the use of the Chinese starter and wheat Qu lead to the growth of various microorganisms during the complete brewing process. It's of great importance to fully understand the composition of bacteria diversity in rice wine in order to improve the quality and solve safety problems. In this study, a more comprehensive bacterial description was shown with the use of bacteria diversity analysis, which enabled us to have a better understanding. Rarefaction, rank abundance, alpha Diversity, beta diversity and principal coordinates analysis simplified their complex bacteria components and provide us theoretical foundation for further investigation. It has been found bacteria diversity is more abundant at mid-term and later stage of brewing process. Bacteria community analysis reveals there is a potential safety hazard existing in the fermentation, since most of the sequence reads are assigned to Enterobacter (7900 at most) and Pantoea (7336 at most), followed by Staphylococcus (2796 at most) and Pseudomonas (1681 at most). Lactic acid bacteria are rare throughout the fermentation process which is not in accordance with other reports. This work may offer us an opportunity to investigate micro ecological fermentation system in food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Jeong S.,Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering |
Marks B.P.,Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering |
Ryser E.T.,Food Science and Human Nutrition
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011
Pediococcus sp. NRRL B-2354 was investigated as a potential nonpathogenic surrogate for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (SE PT30) on the surface of almonds subjected to moist-air heating. Both microorganisms were subjected to various time, temperature, and humidity regimens on almonds processed in a computer-controlled, laboratory-scale, moist-air convection oven. Overall, the mean log reductions for Pediococcus sp. were 0.6 log and 1.4 log lower than those for SE PT30 (P < 0.05) at predicted reductions of 3 and 5 log, respectively. Also, the Dref-values for Pediococcus sp., calculated using a modified inactivation model (accounting for moisture) for SE PT30 on the surface of almonds subjected to moist-air heating (30 to 90% moisture by volume) were ̃30% larger than those for SE PT30. Based on these findings, Pediococcus sp. NRRL B-2354 can be used as a conservative surrogate for SE PT30 during moist-air heating, and this organism is also likely to be an acceptable surrogate for steam heating. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.