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East Lansing, MI, United States

Harte J.,Food Science and Human Nutrition
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

Background: Instrumental analyses have shown that non-vented bio-based containers made from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have the capability to enhance blueberry shelf life as comparedwith commercial vented petroleum-based clamshell containers. However, consumer preference has not been explored so far. In this study, two sensory evaluations, triangle and paired preference tests, were performed after storing fruit in both containers at 3 and 10 °C for 7 and 14 days. In addition, physicochemical analyses were performed after each tasting in order to correlate instrumental findings with consumer preference. Results: The results of the triangle test showed the capability of the consumer to differentiate (P ≤ 0.001) between blueberries from different packages at both storage temperatures. A consumer preference for flavour, texture, external appearance and overall quality (P ≤ 0.001) of blueberries packaged in PLA containers was observed in the paired comparison test. The instrumental analyses showed that blueberries in the PLA packages exhibited a weight loss below the limit formarketable life, a stable soluble solid content and titratable acidity and no fungal growth during storage. Conclusion: Consumers distinguished between blueberries from different packages and preferred those packaged in the PLA containers. The instrumental analyses showed that the usable life of the berries was extended in the PLA containers. A correlation between consumer preference and instrumental evaluations was found. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Fang R.-S.,Zhejiang University | Dong Y.-C.,Zhejiang University | Chen F.,Zhejiang University | Chen Q.-H.,Food Science and Human Nutrition
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2015

Rice wine is a traditional Chinese fermented alcohol drink. Spontaneous fermentation with the use of the Chinese starter and wheat Qu lead to the growth of various microorganisms during the complete brewing process. It's of great importance to fully understand the composition of bacteria diversity in rice wine in order to improve the quality and solve safety problems. In this study, a more comprehensive bacterial description was shown with the use of bacteria diversity analysis, which enabled us to have a better understanding. Rarefaction, rank abundance, alpha Diversity, beta diversity and principal coordinates analysis simplified their complex bacteria components and provide us theoretical foundation for further investigation. It has been found bacteria diversity is more abundant at mid-term and later stage of brewing process. Bacteria community analysis reveals there is a potential safety hazard existing in the fermentation, since most of the sequence reads are assigned to Enterobacter (7900 at most) and Pantoea (7336 at most), followed by Staphylococcus (2796 at most) and Pseudomonas (1681 at most). Lactic acid bacteria are rare throughout the fermentation process which is not in accordance with other reports. This work may offer us an opportunity to investigate micro ecological fermentation system in food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Jeong S.,Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering | Marks B.P.,Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering | Ryser E.T.,Food Science and Human Nutrition
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

Pediococcus sp. NRRL B-2354 was investigated as a potential nonpathogenic surrogate for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (SE PT30) on the surface of almonds subjected to moist-air heating. Both microorganisms were subjected to various time, temperature, and humidity regimens on almonds processed in a computer-controlled, laboratory-scale, moist-air convection oven. Overall, the mean log reductions for Pediococcus sp. were 0.6 log and 1.4 log lower than those for SE PT30 (P < 0.05) at predicted reductions of 3 and 5 log, respectively. Also, the Dref-values for Pediococcus sp., calculated using a modified inactivation model (accounting for moisture) for SE PT30 on the surface of almonds subjected to moist-air heating (30 to 90% moisture by volume) were ̃30% larger than those for SE PT30. Based on these findings, Pediococcus sp. NRRL B-2354 can be used as a conservative surrogate for SE PT30 during moist-air heating, and this organism is also likely to be an acceptable surrogate for steam heating. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection. Source

He K.,Michigan State University | Zhou H.-R.,Food Science and Human Nutrition | Pestka J.J.,Michigan State University
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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