News Article | February 15, 2017
The theory behind Musical Pairing®, a patent-pending method of matching music to food using a simple mathematical formula, has been confirmed by a peer-reviewed study published in the Advances in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. More than 90% of study participants reported a noticeable increase in the enjoyment of a dish when properly paired with music using the Musical Pairing algorithm. Chef and author Barbara Werner formulated the methodology to help individuals find the best beverage to complement their meal and then elevate their dining experience by accompanying it with a selection of properly paired music. Musical Pairing is based on three interrelated hypotheses. The first is that music can influence how food is perceived and appreciated. The second is that a simple mathematical formula can define this relationship (Musical Pairing®). The third is that this knowledge can be used to enhance (or detract from) the enjoyment of a meal. The pairing is accomplished by assigning a numerical value to the components of a meal and then finding a musical match of equal value. The present study tested the validity of these hypotheses by observing if one can alter the dining experience by manipulating the music according to the Musical Pairing algorithms. Test dinners were held in five U.S. states, with subject diners unaware they were taking part in a research experiment to avoid pre-conceived opinion. The study found that 62 out of 67 subjects (93%) found the dish to be more enjoyable when properly matched using the Musical Pairing algorithm. There was a statistically significant difference in the reported flavors of a dish when certain music selections were introduced. Also, a significant number of attendees felt that the music affected the dining experience for a period of time after the dinner. These data confirm that using a mathematical formula to pair music and food can have a positive outcome on the diner’s experience. Scientists had previously corroborated this idea: Research by American psychologist Linda May Bartoshuk, Phd, on the ‘psychophysics of taste’ and Dr. Charles Spence, an experimental psychologist and head of the University of Oxford's Crossmodal Research Laboratory, as well as many others have addressed various aspects of taste and its effect on the senses. Unaware that they were designed for research, Fodor’s named these Musical Pairing dinners as one of the top 10 can’t miss pop-up experiences. Ms. Werner and Musical Pairing have been showcased at beer, wine and spirit festivals and culinary events around the country, and Ms. Werner has been interviewed by food writers and bloggers. Ms. Werner and her team are continuing to tour the country to bring their culinary revolution to all foodies, holding dinners at restaurants and teaching the technique so guests can elevate their dining experience at home. Music Pairing is licensed by BMI and ASCAP, and all music was obtained via Spotify and iTunes and transmitted through headphones. The study was carried out using research parameters recommended by Christopher Currie PhD and in cooperation with Robert Bernstein, MD. Musical Pairing® has completed dinners from San Francisco to NY using their mathematical technique to match music with food via a formula . . .–Barron’s 16 March 2016
News Article | November 23, 2016
When you are in the supermarket contemplating which vegetables to buy, nitrogen is hardly the first thing on your mind. However, the products on the shelves contribute to the total nitrogen cycle in different ways. For instance, consider the leek. This slender bulbous plant has a superficial root system and requires a significant amount of nitrogen. The fact that it is harvested late in the season makes it difficult to grow catch crops. This makes leeks major environmental culprits - irrespective of whether they are grown organically or conventionally. At Aarhus University scientists are currently trying to optimize the cultivation of organic vegetables - to the benefit of both vegetable producers and the environment. An example of this is the recently concluded CORE Organic project "InterVeg" where scientists from the Department of Food Science, together with international colleagues, examined the opportunities of reducing nitrogen loss by growing catch crops together with vegetables such as leek and cauliflower. - Traditionally, catch crops are sown once the main crop has been harvested. Instead, we examined whether it was possible to grow the two crop types at the same time - in separated rows - and the results seem promising, says project participant Hanne Lakkenborg Kristensen, Science Leader at Department of Food Science at Aarhus University. An advantage to the nitrogen balance As part of the project seven field trials, each with a duration of two years, were carried out in Italy, Slovenia, Germany and Denmark. The Danish trials took place at AU Aarslev in Funen where scientists grew leek together with dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria), which belong to the Brassicaceae family. Specifically, every third field row was designated for this catch crop. The trial demonstrated that leek yield per row was the same as when only vegetables were grown. - Growing more crops at the same time does not ensure higher yields, but the major advantage is that Isatis tinctoria excellently complement leek growth, both over and below the soil surface, as they have a deeper root system reaching as deep as two meters. This means that Isatis tinctoria plants are able to grow in - and absorb nitrogen from - soil layers that leeks are unable to reach. These plants not only help reduce leaching; they are also able to store nitrogen for next year's crops when they are plowed into the soil after the winter, and this reduces the need for additional fertilizer from other sources, says Hanne Lakkenborg Kristensen. However, certain challenges exist in relation to growing vegetables like this. In order for intercropping to be a success, the competition between the crops should be kept at a minimum. - If we plant crops at the same time the vegetables will not receive sufficient nutrition. However, we have demonstrated that if the catch crops are sown four weeks after the main crop then the crop types will not compete, says Hanne Lakkenborg Kristensen. Land use is another challenge. Even though the yield per row will stay the same then the plant producer will have to set aside every third row for catch crop production, and this still means fewer leeks or cauliflowers per field. However, Hanne Lakkenborg Kristensen emphasizes that organic producers of high-value crops are not typically limited by farmland area. Quality is the main focus and the system allows for improved interaction between the agro-ecosystem and the environment to the benefit of both organic production and the surrounding nature. As an example, the cauliflower trials showed that intercropping attracts more beneficial insects and fewer pests, while the leek trials demonstrated that intercropping also stunts weed growth. - This cultivation system may result in fewer leeks or cauliflowers per hectare, but - on the other hand - if it ensures an improved interaction between soil, crops, nutrients and the environment it may be worth the effort. Speaking in terms of percentage, this may entail that the producer can sell more crops and reduce waste, says Hanne Lakkenborg Kristensen and continues: - Additional research is needed on how to control the competition between main crops, catch crops and weeds, and how to reduce nitrogen leaching. These methods require further development if we want to achieve high yields and improved environmental impact. InterVeg: Enhancing multifunctional benefits of cover crops - vegetables intercropping is an EU project funded via the ERA-NET CORE Organic 2 and national funding bodies of Slovenia, Germany, Denmark and Italy (headed by CREA). The ERA-NET is coordinated by ICROFS. The Department of Food Science has a leading position within the research areas of plants, food and the environment. Hanne Lakkenborg Kristensen and PhD student at the Department of Food Science Yue Xie participated in the Danish part of the project. The research being carried out in INTERVEG is closely aligned to the portfolio of research and teaching activities in the Plant, Food & Environment Flagship in the Department of Food Sciences; this flagship area reflects where the department has a smart specialization and considerable expertise both at a national and international level.
News Article | February 22, 2017
CHICAGO - A study published in the Journal of Food Science found that expectations of product quality, nutritional content and the amount of money consumers were willing to pay increased when consumers saw a product labeled "all-natural" as compared to the same product without the label. Researchers at Ohio State University used virtual reality technology to simulate a grocery store taste-test of peanut butter. In one condition, consumers were asked by a server to evaluate identical products with only one being labeled all-natural. In the other, the server additionally emphasized the all-natural status of the one sample. In the first condition, expectations of product quality and nutritional content increased, but not liking or willingness to pay additional for the all-natural product. However, expectations of product quality and nutritional content as well the amount of money subjects were willing to pay increased further when a virtual in-store server identified one of the peanut butters as being made with all-natural ingredients. This result was observed across a diverse group of subjects indicating the broad impact of the all-natural label. Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not provided a clear definition of the phrases "natural" or "all natural", despite extensive use in U.S. product marketing. Prior research has indicated that consumers define "natural" primarily by the absence of "undesirable" attributes such as additives and human intervention, as opposed to the presence of specific positive qualities. "We believe our findings provide sound, evidence-based guidance to the FDA and suggest the term natural be regulated so as to minimize consumer and manufacturer confusion over the term. This will serve to protect America's consumers and manufacturers by ensuring food labels convey accurate and non-misleading information," lead author of the study Christopher T. Simons, Ph.D., explained. View the abstract in the Journal of Food Science here. Founded in 1939, the Institute of Food Technologists is committed to advancing the science of food. Our non-profit scientific society--more than 17,000 members from more than 95 countries--brings together food scientists, technologists and related professionals from academia, government, and industry. For more information, please visit ift.org.
News Article | March 2, 2017
Dance Academy USA Production Company (DAUPC), the renowned San Jose dance school’s premier competition team, has announced it will be holding auditions for the 2018 team on March 11-12, 2017. Note: DAUPC is the largest youth dance competition team in California. The Dance Academy USA Production Company is an accelerated training program for those dance students who want competition-level performance opportunities. Dancers are required to take additional performance and technique classes and membership invitations are offered on an audition-only basis. All DAUPC members must re-audition every year, as the team is highly competitive, with slots available only for the most advanced dancers. DAUPC has participated in countless dance competitions over a 27 year period, and, in nearly each and every case, they have returned home with dozens of top awards. For instance, Dance Academy USA Production Company was awarded eighteen platinum trophies (at the Hollywood Connection Competition in January, 2017) which is the highest possible award; additionally, three DAUPC routines received TITANIUM which means a near perfect score from the judges; and finally, twenty one routines earned first place in their respective genres. Further, at the Spotlight Competition in February, 2017 - DAUPC scored an astonishing fifty one awards total; seventeen routines received a diamond; eleven routines earned a special judges award; and, the DAUPC soloists received thirteen diamond awards and nine received a special judge’s award. “DAUPC is highly competitive and truly represents the best of the best in Silicon Valley,” said Dance Academy USA Owner and Director, Jane Carter. “Nobody is given special treatment - all dancers have to not only earn their spots on the team, but work to keep their spots. That’s why we require all of our dancers to audition for the team each and every year - nothing’s a given.” Jane Carter founded DAUPC in 1991 and has been the director ever since. About the Director: in 2013, Ms. Jane was awarded America’s Dance Educator of the Year by Co. Dance; in 2014, she won the most prestigious dance teacher award in the United States of America. Dance Teacher Magazine awarded Ms. Jane the 2014 Dance Teacher Award in the Private Studio/Conservatory Category. She was presented this extraordinary honor in New York City. There is no higher honor in the dance education industry. “While we expect a great deal from our Production Company dancers,” Carter said, “as a reward for the amount of time spent dancing together, our students develop strong bonds of friendship with their fellow dancers. We are very proud of their technique and their performance ability, but it is their love for one another that we are most proud.” Dance Academy USA is the largest dance studio in Northern California and has served the San Jose area dance community for 27 years. The business is a Bay Area Green Business which offers classes in tap, ballet, pointe, jazz, contemporary, lyrical, hip hop and breakdancing. Dance Academy USA is also known for their award winning competition team which is regarded as one of the most accomplished in the nation. To learn more about Dance Academy, please visit their website at DanceAcademyUSA.com. You can also contact DAU by phone at (408) 257-3211 or by email at officeteam(at)danceacademyusa(dot)com. More about the company: Dance Academy USA was founded in 1990 by James R. and Jane R. Carter; the business has since expanded in size, becoming the largest dance school in Northern California with a staff of over 60 employees; Jane Carter is a graduate of San Jose State University with a degree in Human Performance/Fitness and a minor in Nutrition and Food Science; while in college she was selected by Dole Corporation to be the company’s ambassador to promote dance, modeling, and aerobics in Japan; additionally, Jane is a former dancer for the Golden State Warriors and a professional cheerleader for the San Francisco 49ers; and finally, she is the Former Director of the NBA Warrior Dance Team and former Creator and Director of Arena Football’s San Jose SaberKittens.
News Article | February 15, 2017
At dairies, the reverse osmosis filtration technique is extensively used to remove water from milk to be used for further processing such as e.g. cheese or milk powder. However, many resources would be saved if it was possible to move this process to the farms, since you would reduce the amount of water transported. In cooperation with the Danish dairy company, Arla, PhD student Ida Sørensen and Associate Professor Lars Wiking from Department of Food Science at Aarhus University have examined how milk quality is affected when concentrating the milk is carried out on-farm. The researchers at Aarhus University have analyzed experiments with both the so-called ultrafiltration, which is supposed be more gentle to the milk, and with the reverse osmosis technique, which requires a higher pressure on the milk but also retains the lactose which may be an advantage in for example milk powder. Neither the total bacterial count, or the FFA-levels nor the protein breakdown were negatively affected by reverse osmosis; the concentrated milk could very well be used for both cheese and milk powder. Analyses also demonstrate that the quality and durability of milk powder made from concentrated milk is the same as for powder made from ordinary milk; in cheese, however, there is a minor difference as to how the enzymes react; and in the experiments, concentrated milk coagulated approximately ten minutes later than regular milk. Significant interest -- but is it worthwhile? Concentration of milk on the farm, or during transport from farm to dairy, is carried out in many other countries in the world, e.g. in Texas, USA, where both herds and distances are huge. Different models exist as to how on-farm milk concentration may become a reality. The farmer may buy the filtration equipment himself and achieve an additional price for the milk. Or perhaps the dairy could buy, maintain and service the filtration installation or it could be acquired through some kind of leasing agreement. Herd size and distance to the dairy in particular, are of major importance when considering resources and profitability, as small installations typically use more power than one large installation, says Ida Sørensen; she has just presented the results of the studies at a major conference in Dublin. "New sustainable milk concentration technology for dairy herds" is a five year project which ends this year. Project participants include Arla Foods amba/Arla Foods Ingredients PS (Arla), Danmarks Kvægforskningscenter (the Danish Cattle Research Center - DKC) and Aarhus University (AU). In addition, GEA Process Engineering (GEA) is affiliated as an external consultant. The project is financially supported by Mælkeafgiftsfonden (Milk Taxation Foundation - MAF) and the Green Development and Demonstration Programme (GUDP).
News Article | November 29, 2016
JSL Foods, Inc., the leader of fresh, refrigerated, pre-cooked Asian Noodles, Rice Blends, and Asian Wrappers is pleased to announce the appointment of Ayako Toma as its new Director of Research & Development. Toma has a Bachelor’s degree in Food Science and a Bachelor’s of Arts degree in Japanese from the University of California, Davis and a Master’s of Science degree from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona in Human Nutrition and Food Science. Prior to joining JSL Foods, she previously worked in the fresh cut produce industry doing product innovation from ideation to execution with recipes, ingredient formulations, labeling and regulatory compliance. In announcing the appointment, Teiji Kawana, President of JSL Foods expressed his pleasure and excitement that Toma will further solidify JSL Foods leading position as market innovators and chart a course of new product innovation that will be instrumental in the future growth of JSL Foods’ portfolio of brands. “I’m very excited about my new opportunity here at JSL Foods and very eager to meet the challenges and responsibilities that my new position presents,” said Ayako Toma. “JSL Foods pursuit of continuous improvement is rooted by their pillars of quality and innovation. To be part of that is very inspiring.” Toma will manage a growing research and development department that consist of food technologists, project managers and R&D technicians that will be responsible for developing innovative noodle, pasta, rice, grains and baked good products for JSL Foods. JSL Foods’ Fortune brand Asian noodles are the #1 fresh refrigerated noodle line in the United States. The Fortune brand accounts for 78% of all category sales nationally (Nielsen) and can be found in 4,200 grocery stores nationally. JSL Foods continues to lead the growth of the Asian noodle category by creating innovative, high quality products that offer a nutritious and flavorful profile that supports consumer’s desires to cook Asian foods easily in the comfort of their home. Each noodle is packaged with a natural flavored dry sauce packet and is available in a variety of delicious flavors such as Thai Peanut, Coconut Curry, Teriyaki and Soy Ginger. The line offers consumers a wide range of consumer sought-after health benefits including 100% All Natural, Non-GMO ingredients, Omega-3 Fortified, Cholesterol-Free and MSG Free. JSL Foods markets its product line to Retail, Foodservice and Industrial segments with their brands: Fortune, Twin Dragon and JSL Foods Professional Products. Founded in 1951, JSL Foods is a third generation family owned company. Their Fortune and Twin Dragon brands are the category leader of fresh, refrigerated, pre-cooked Asian Noodles, Rice Blends and Asian Wrappers (Egg Roll, Won Ton and Gyoza). Fortune’s Asian Noodle product line consists of Yakisoba, Udon and gluten free Rice Noodles. These Asian Noodles come with a natural flavored sauce packet and are available in a variety of delicious flavors such as Thai Peanut, Coconut Curry, Teriyaki and Soy Ginger. The line offer consumers a wide range of health options including Omega-3 Fortified, Non-GMO, Cholesterol-Free, 100% Natural and MSG Free. Twin Dragon Asian Wrappers are 100% Natural, Vegan, Kosher and Non-GMO. Located in Los Angeles, California, JSL Foods has built its reputation on delivering a fresh, convenient and restaurant quality Asian meal experience for consumer’s home enjoyment. JSL Foods products are sold under the Fortune and Twin Dragon brands and are located in the produce department next to the Tofu section in supermarkets across the United States. JSL Foods is committed to their consumers through continuous innovation towards healthy ingredients, convenience, and value including authentic and fusion culinary recipe solutions. Contact Wayne Nielsen at 323-223-2484 or email him at email@example.com.
News Article | February 16, 2017
New topics in "Foodborne Diseases" include nanotechnology, bioterrorism and the use of foodborne pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic resistance CAMBRIDGE, MA--(Marketwired - February 16, 2017) - Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced the publication of an updated version of Foodborne Diseases, edited by Christine Dodd, Tim Aldsworth and Richard Stein. This foundational reference offers a practical understanding of diseases to help researchers and scientists manage foodborne illnesses and prevent and control outbreaks. At the same time, Elsevier announced four additional food science books. Foodborne Diseases, Third Edition, covers the ever-changing complex issues that have emerged in the food industry during the past decade. It includes new topics such as bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral foodborne diseases; chemical toxicants; risk-based control measures; virulence factors of microbial pathogens that cause disease; epigenetics and foodborne pathogens; nanotechnology; bioterrorism and the use of foodborne pathogens; antimicrobial resistance; and antibiotic resistance. Learn more about disease processes in foodborne illness in this sample chapter. Dr. Dodd is the department chair of Food Science in the School of Biosciences at the University of Nottingham, UK. She is an expert in applied microbiology, cross-contamination and enteric viruses. Dr. Dodd has published more than 100 articles and has been an invited speaker at more than 40 conferences. Dr. Aldsworth is senior lecturer in Biotechnology in the Department of Applied Sciences and Health at Coventry University in Priory, UK. His research expertise is in microbiological analysis of food, food safety, pathogen epidemiology and microbial resistance. Dr. Stein is a research scientist in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at New York University in New York City, USA. He has expertise in biochemistry and molecular genetics. Dr. Stein is Associate Editor for "Infectious Diseases" as well as an editorial board member of nine journals and a highly respected speaker. The five new food science titles are: In order to meet content needs in food science, Elsevier uses proprietary tools to identify the gaps in coverage of the topics. Editorial teams strategically fill those gaps with content written by key influencers in the field, giving students, faculty and researchers the content they need to answer challenging questions and improve outcomes. These new books, which will educate the next generation of food scientists, and provide critical foundational content for information professionals, are key examples of how Elsevier is enabling science to drive innovation. Note for Editors E-book review copies of the new books are available to credentialed journalists upon request. Contact Jelena Baras at firstname.lastname@example.org. About Elsevier Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals, empowering them to make better decisions, deliver better care, and sometimes make groundbreaking discoveries that advance the boundaries of knowledge and human progress. Elsevier provides web-based, digital solutions -- among them ScienceDirect, Scopus, Research Intelligence and ClinicalKey -- and publishes over 2,500 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and more than 35,000 book titles, including a number of iconic reference works. Elsevier is part of RELX Group, a world-leading provider of information and analytics for professional and business customers across industries. www.elsevier.com
News Article | December 14, 2016
Description: Ellenzweig collaborated with Framingham State University and the Massachusetts Division of Capital Asset Management and Maintenance in completing an eight-year study/design/construction project to expand and upgrade the University’s science facilities located in Hemenway Hall and the Hemenway Annex. The phased project began with a comprehensive feasibility and programming study, and continued with design and construction of a 57,000 gsf addition and 100,000 gsf of renovations to the existing buildings. The new addition houses 16 teaching laboratories serving Chemistry, Food Science and Biology. The laboratories feature 49 filtered fume hoods, at time of construction the largest installation of filtering fume hoods in the world, reducing the building’s carbon footprint by 68 percent as compared with the national average of similar buildings. The project is tracking LEED Silver certification.
News Article | February 27, 2017
Vegesentials, the multiple international award-winning high-pressure pasteurized cold-pressed fruit and vegetable drink brand is now available on Amazon.com. In 2016, the London-based Vegesentials Ltd. partnered with Michigan-based Vegesentials USA, LLC to manufacture and distribute the Vegesentials line of juices throughout North America. Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (“RDN”) Nanette Cameron has been working with Vegesentials to improve their cold-pressed juices for children and young adults. Commenting on the ingredients of Vegesentials offerings, Cameron notes the added fiber “promotes blood sugar stabilization, but what it means is energy balance to improve a child’s focus and mood; something that is so important for learning and academics.” She continues that “digestive health refers to keeping healthy floral in the stomach, this decreases stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, another common issue among children and many young adults.” Studying the various Vegesentials recipes and contents, Cameron commented, “What I like about these juices is the cold pressurized process. The nutrients from the fruit and vegetables are maintained; this is something that is not listed on a nutritional label. Consuming anti-oxidants and phyto-chemicals have been linked to a healthy immune system and prevention of disease.” The Vegesentials labels are “clean, and that’s what we advise our constituents to be on the look-out for: ‘clean labeling.’” As part of the required North American validation of the juice contents, Vegesentials retained the Department of Food Science at the University of Guelph (Ontario, CA) to certify its HPP process and juice ingredients. According to Dr. Keith Warriner, the aim of the validations is “to determine the efficacy of different HHP treatments to reduce model pathogens introduced into high acid juices.” Because HPP technology is relatively new and fresh juice has become so popular, Dr. Warriner will continue his academic research with Vegesentials to improve food safety for consumers. “The results [of our testing] indicate that juice formulation has a role in defining the pressure resistance of pathogens although which constituents provide protection to HHP remain unclear.” "Our biggest concern as a company is customer health," said Daniel Hoops, Vegesentials USA co-founder. "When you look at the vast array of cold-pressed juices sold on the Internet, few use the HPP technology. In addition to our juices having longer shelf life, we know that there is little to no risk of salmonella, ecoli, and other food-borne bacteria because we use HPP." Vegesentials is the United Kingdom’s first cold pressed vegetable and fruit drink brand. Following its launch in June 2012, Vegesentials can now be found in all but one WholeFoods in the U.K., 60% of the Waitrose supermarkets, and 50% of the Holland and Barrett outlets. Vegesentials has received numerous awards and recognition since its initial launch, including 2 Gold Stars awards for Superior Taste from the International Taste & Quality Institute, Winner of ‘the Health & Fitness Food and Drink ‘Smoothie Category 2014 Award’ by Women’s Fitness and Health & Fitness Magazines, Gold in the low calorie food and drink category by Women’s Fitness and Health & Fitness 2016, Voted as No.1 ‘Highly Recommended’ Drink at Be:Fit London Show 2014 by ‘Science of Fit’, Winner of 'Best Exhibitor Award 2014’ at The Food & Drink Expo Trade Show NEC Birmingham, UK’s largest ‘Food & Drink’ trade show in 2014, and Finalist for Grocer Gold Award for “Entrepreneur of 2014.” “We thought the American consumer might be a little hesitant to try a ‘foreign’ fruit and vegetable juice, but all of the feedback from our testing groups have come back with high marks. It’s been incredible and we’re honored to be the exclusive distributor here in North America.” Cameron said “I was genuinely shocked to hear my 16-year old nephew (who despises carrots) tell me that the Cheeky Carrot juice was ‘the best juice I have ever tasted!’ That was all the validation I needed.” Vegesentials USA will offer Amazon.com customers the Vegesentials 8.8oz Cheeky Carrot (carrot, apple, orange, lime, and chicory root), Cool Cucumber (cucumber, apple, spinach and chicory root), and Groovy Beet (beetroot, apple, cucumber, strawberry and chicory root). The child and senior version of these juices, sold in a 4.4oz bottle, will be available on Amazon.com at a later date. For more information about Vegesentials, visit http://www.vegesentials.co.uk or http://www.vegesentialsusa.com.
News Article | February 15, 2017
In cooperation with the Danish dairy company, Arla, PhD student Ida Sørensen and Associate Professor Lars Wiking from Department of Food Science at Aarhus University have examined how milk quality is affected when concentrating the milk is carried out on-farm. "Even though the reverse osmosis technique is widely used, we only have limited documentation of how it affects milk quality. Milk is a rather delicate raw material so it is important to identify how key quality parameters such as protein breakdown and level of free fatty acids (FFA) and total bacterial count are affected. These parameters are important to the taste, smell and look of the final product." "It is important that on-farm concentration does not deteriorate the quality. Normally, it is not a problem that the fat globules in the milk are damaged in the process at the dairy, as the milk is subsequently pasteurized. However, when carrying out milk concentration at the farm, the milk is left unpasteurized and all the enzymes and micro-organisms are still there and therefore the milk is more delicate, Ida Sørensen explains." The researchers at Aarhus University have analyzed experiments with both the so-called ultrafiltration, which is supposed be more gentle to the milk, and with the reverse osmosis technique, which requires a higher pressure on the milk but also retains the lactose which may be an advantage in for example milk powder. Neither the total bacterial count, or the FFA-levels nor the protein breakdown were negatively affected by reverse osmosis; the concentrated milk could very well be used for both cheese and milk powder. Analyses also demonstrate that the quality and durability of milk powder made from concentrated milk is the same as for powder made from ordinary milk; in cheese, however, there is a minor difference as to how the enzymes react; and in the experiments, concentrated milk coagulated approximately ten minutes later than regular milk. "My theory is that it is more difficult for the enzymes to 'get through', Ida Sørensen says and explains that concentrated milk is thicker—more like coffee cream—and this might explain why coagulation takes a little longer." Concentration of milk on the farm, or during transport from farm to dairy, is carried out in many other countries in the world, e.g. in Texas, USA, where both herds and distances are huge. Different models exist as to how on-farm milk concentration may become a reality. The farmer may buy the filtration equipment himself and achieve an additional price for the milk. Or perhaps the dairy could buy, maintain and service the filtration installation or it could be acquired through some kind of leasing agreement. Herd size and distance to the dairy in particular, are of major importance when considering resources and profitability, as small installations typically use more power than one large installation, says Ida Sørensen; she has just presented the results of the studies at a major conference in Dublin. "While farmers have shown significant interest in the idea, the dairies seem more skeptical; especially in relation to finances as well as the handling of this new type of milk. Arla is currently making calculations in relation to the profitability of this project, as energy consumption and investments should be balanced in proportion to cost savings." Explore further: New review article suggests sheep milk may be the next functional dairy food More information: Ida Sørensen et al, Storage stability of whole milk powder produced from raw milk reverse osmosis retentate, Dairy Science & Technology (2016). DOI: 10.1007/s13594-016-0309-y