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Dhaka, Bangladesh

Talukdar P.K.,Food Safety Research Group | Talukdar P.K.,University of Dhaka | Rahman M.,Food Safety Research Group | Nabi A.,Food Safety Research Group | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Unsafe water supplies continue to raise public health concerns, especially in urban areas in low resource countries. To understand the extent of public health risk attributed to supply water in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, Escherichia coli isolated from tap water samples collected from different locations of the city were characterized for their antibiotic resistance, pathogenic properties and genetic diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 233 E. coli isolates obtained from 175 tap water samples were analysed for susceptibility to 16 different antibiotics and for the presence of genes associated with virulence and antibiotic resistance. Nearly 36% (n = 84) of the isolates were multi-drug(≥3 classes of antibiotics) resistant (MDR) and 26% (n = 22) of these were positive for extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Of the 22 ESBL-producers, 20 were positive for blaCTX-M-15, 7 for blaOXA-1-group (all had blaOXA-47) and 2 for blaCMY-2. Quinolone resistance genes, qnrS and qnrB were detected in 6 and 2 isolates, respectively. Around 7% (n = 16) of the isolates carried virulence gene(s) characteristic of pathogenic E. coli; 11 of these contained lt and/or st and thus belonged to enterotoxigenic E. coli and 5 contained bfp and eae and thus belonged to enteropathogenic E. coli. All MDR isolates carried multiple plasmids (2 to 8) of varying sizes ranging from 1.2 to >120 MDa. Ampicillin and ceftriaxone resistance were co-transferred in conjugative plasmids of 70 to 100 MDa in size, while ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline resistance were co-transferred in conjugative plasmids of 50 to 90 MDa. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed diverse genetic fingerprints of pathogenic isolates. Significance: Multi-drug resistant E. coli are wide spread in public water supply in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Transmission of resistant bacteria and plasmids through supply water pose serious threats to public health in urban areas. © 2013 Talukdar et al.

Islam M.A.,Food Safety Research Group | Ahmed T.,Food Safety Research Group | Faruque A.S.G.,Food Safety Research Group | Rahman S.,Food Safety Research Group | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background/objectives:To examine the bacteriological quality of complementary foods (CF) and to correlate the results with diarrhoeal morbidity and nutritional status of Bangladeshi children aged 624 months.Subjects/methods: A total of 212 CF samples were tested, of which 72 were collected immediately before the first time of feeding (1 h of food preparation) and 140 were collected at second/third time of feeding from 140 households located in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Anthropometry, food frequency data and demographic information of the children were collected.Results:Of the first time feeding samples, 3% from each of urban and rural areas were found to be contaminated with faecal coliforms (FC) at 100 CFU/g. E. coli was isolated from 11% and 6% of samples, and B. cereus from 8% and 6% of samples from urban and rural areas, respectively. In contrast, 33% of the second/third time feeding samples from urban areas and 19% from rural areas were contaminated with FC at 100 CFU/g (P0.05). E. coli was isolated from 40% and 39% of samples, and B. cereus from 33% and 26% of samples from urban and rural areas, respectively. Significantly high numbers of wasted rural children had CF with a high aerobic plate count, which was also significantly associated with diarrhoeal morbidity in children.Conclusions:Around 40% of CF samples were contaminated with E. coli, which was mainly attributable to food preparation practices. Consumption of contaminated CF appeared to be associated with a higher frequency of diarrhoea and malnutrition in children. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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