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Tlustos C.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Sheridan M.,Fisheries and Food | O'Sullivan D.,Fisheries and Food | Anderson W.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Flynn A.,University College Cork
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

A porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme in 2008 led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. The source of the contamination was traced back to the use of contaminated oil in a direct-drying feed operation system. Congener profiles in animal fat and feed samples showed a high level of consistency and pinpointed the likely source of fuel contamination to be a highly chlorinated commercial PCB mixture. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SFS-14b-2015 | Award Amount: 521.83K | Year: 2016

It is acknowledged that historically anti-food fraud capability within Europe has not been consolidated and lacks the coordination and support structures available to those working in food safety. There are various initiatives underway to redress this balance e.g. DGSants Food Fraud network, DG Researchs FoodIntegrity project, as well as numerous national programmes and industry initiatives. One pivotal area that still needs to be addressed is bringing together national research funding bodies to facilitate the development of transnational research programmes. AUTHENT-NET will address this need by mobilising and coordinating relevant research budget holders in order to facilitate the eventual development of a transnational European funding vehicle that will allow Members States (MS) to jointly fund anti-fraud research. Authent-Net comprises a core group of 19 participants from 10 MS, 1 NGO and the US, who are either National research funding bodies; experts in food authenticity, and/or experts in transnational funding mechanisms. AUTHENT-NET will: 1) Bring together relevant MS R&D budget holders to coordinate inter-disciplinary research effort and build a cohesive and sustainable network 2) Undertake stocktaking of existing national research and assess against the international landscape 3) Establish transnational mechanisms and instruments for collating and exchanging information on food authenticity research 4) Develop a high level research and innovation strategy for transnational research and a rationale for a potential ERANET on food authenticity The two year project will have the following expected impacts: improved coordination and communication between relevant MS research budget holders; enhanced cognisance of existing national research; joint strategy for food fraud R&D; agreed priorities and capability to deliver transnational European research on food fraud.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2010.2.4-01 | Award Amount: 3.49M | Year: 2012

The general objectives of PROMISE are: PROMISE strives for multidimensional networking thus fostering integration The primary strategic objective of PROMISE is to improve and increase the integration, collaboration and knowledge transfer between the new member states, old member states (EU15) and candidate countries through a collaborative workplan of exchange of expertise and regional training and dissemination actions, to tackle common food safety threats. PROMISE strives for sustainability through involvement of risk communicators A further strategic objective is to integrate stakeholders like public health authorities and national food safety authorities from the old and new member countries in order to ensure the exploitation of research results into standardisation and harmonisation efforts. PROMISE will enhance the knowledge on pathogen transmission While legal imports are well monitored for contamination and alerts are registered through the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF; http://www.efet.gr/docs/rasff/report2008_en.pdf) notification systems, gates into the EU-27 could exist where food supply chains are not controllled. These uncontrolled imports present the risk that new strains of traditional pathogens will be transferred from third countries into the European Union. Analysing, assessing and interpreting this risk of introducing new strains of pathogens is one of the main objectives of PROMISE.


Holt K.E.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Holt K.E.,University of Melbourne | Phan M.D.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Phan M.D.,University of Queensland | And 14 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains a serious global health concern. Since their emergence in the mid-1970s multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. Typhi now dominate drug sensitive equivalents in many regions. MDR in S. Typhi is almost exclusively conferred by self-transmissible IncHI1 plasmids carrying a suite of antimicrobial resistance genes. We identified over 300 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within conserved regions of the IncHI1 plasmid, and genotyped both plasmid and chromosomal SNPs in over 450 S. Typhi dating back to 1958. Prior to 1995, a variety of IncHI1 plasmid types were detected in distinct S. Typhi haplotypes. Highly similar plasmids were detected in co-circulating S. Typhi haplotypes, indicative of plasmid transfer. In contrast, from 1995 onwards, 98% of MDR S. Typhi were plasmid sequence type 6 (PST6) and S. Typhi haplotype H58, indicating recent global spread of a dominant MDR clone. To investigate whether PST6 conferred a selective advantage compared to other IncHI1 plasmids, we used a phenotyping array to compare the impact of IncHI1 PST6 and PST1 plasmids in a common S. Typhi host. The PST6 plasmid conferred the ability to grow in high salt medium (4.7% NaCl), which we demonstrate is due to the presence in PST6 of the Tn6062 transposon encoding BetU. © 2011 Holt et al.


Fernandes A.R.,UK Environment Agency | Tlustos C.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Rose M.,UK Environment Agency | Smith F.,UK Environment Agency | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

The concentrations of selected polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners (PCNs 52, 53, 66/67, 68, 69, 71/72, 73, 74 and 75) were determined in 100 commonly consumed foods, in the first study on occurrence of these contaminants in the Republic of Ireland. Congener selection was based on current knowledge on PCN occurrence and toxicology, and the availability of reliable reference standards. The determinations were carried out using validated analytical methodology based on 13C 10 labelled internal standardisation and measurement by HRGC-HRMS. The results showed PCN occurrence in the majority of studied foods - milk, fish, dairy and meat products, eggs, animal fat, shellfish, offal, vegetables, cereal products, etc. ranging from 0.09ngkg -1 whole weight for milk to 59.3ngkg -1 whole weight for fish, for the sum of the measured PCNs. The most frequently detected congeners were PCNs 66/67, PCN 52, and PCN 73. The highest concentrations were observed in fish, which generally showed congener profiles that reflect some commercial mixtures. The data compares well with other recently reported data for Western Europe. The dioxin-like toxicity (PCN TEQ) associated with these concentrations is lower than that reported for chlorinated dioxins or PCBs in food from Ireland. The dietary exposure of the Irish adult population to PCNs was calculated following a probabilistic approach, using the full dataset of occur-rence and current consumption data. The estimates of dietary intakes at approximately 0.14pg TEQkgbw -1month -1 for adults on an average diet, reflects the relatively lower occurrence levels. © 2011.


Lalor F.,University College Dublin | Kennedy J.,University College Dublin | Flynn M.A.T.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Wall P.G.,University College Dublin
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective To examine the use of nutrition and health claims on packaged foods commonly eaten in Ireland.Design An assessment of the labels of packaged food products that are commonly eaten in Ireland to determine the level of use of nutrition and health claims. Where present, the exact text of the claims as observed was recorded for seventeen different food categories and the claims categorised in accordance with EU Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.Setting Four retailers in Dublin, Ireland.Results Of the foods surveyed, 473 % carried a nutrition claim and 178 % carried a health claim. Frozen fruit & vegetables and Breakfast cereals were the food categories with the highest proportion of nutrition claims. The most widespread nutrition claim was that referring to fat and, within this group, the most commonly used text was low fat. The largest category of health claims observed in the present survey was general health claims. Claims referring to the digestive system were the most common followed by claims that a product will lower/reduce/regulate your cholesterol. Yoghurt & yoghurt drinks was the food category with the highest proportion of health claims, of which improving or boosting the digestive system was the most common.Conclusions The use of nutrition and health claims on the Irish market is widespread. EU Regulation 1924/2006 requires monitoring of the market for these types of claims. The current study could provide baseline data for the food industry and regulators to monitor the development of this market in the future. © 2009 The Authors.


Bennett A.E.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland
Irish medical journal | Year: 2012

Weaning--the transition from milk to solid food--influences life-long health. Dietary challenges during weaning include providing sufficient critical nutrients such as iron with minimal added sugar and fat and no added salt. This study assessed the inclusion of iron-containing red meat in infant diets before age one year, and the Irish commercial baby food environment. Of mothers with an infant under 30 months of age who were surveyed in shopping centres in Ireland (n195), 82% (n159) reported wanting more weaning information. A quarter (n24) of infants over age 12 months (n97) received no iron-containing red meat before age one year. A scan of commercial baby foods in Ireland identified 448 products. While all complied with baby food legislation, 15% (n69) were intrinsically high in sugar and fat, or contained added salt. This study indicates the need for specific guidance on best infant feeding practice in Ireland.


Karczmarczyk M.,University College Dublin | Abbott Y.,University College Dublin | Walsh C.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Leonard N.,University College Dublin | Fanning S.,University College Dublin
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

In this study, we examined molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in a collection of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from hospitalized animals in Ireland. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify genes associated with resistance. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (94.6%) and contained gene cassettes recognized previously and implicated mainly in resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams, and trimethoprim (aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, bla OXA-30-aadA1, aacC1-orf1-orf2-aadA1, dfr7). Class 2 integrons (13.5%) contained the dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 gene array. The most frequently occurring phenotypes included resistance to ampicillin (97.3%), chloramphenicol (75.4%), florfenicol (40.5%), gentamicin (54%), neomycin (43.2%), streptomycin (97.3%), sulfonamide (98.6%), and tetracycline (100%). The associated resistance determinants detected included blaTEM, cat, floR, aadB, aphA1, strA-strB, sul2, and tet(B), respectively. The bla CTX-M-2 gene, encoding an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL), and bla CMY-2, encoding an AmpC-like enzyme, were identified in 8 and 18 isolates, respectively. The mobility of the resistance genes was demonstrated using conjugation assays with a representative selection of isolates. High-molecular-weight plasmids were found to be responsible for resistance to multiple antimicrobial compounds. The study demonstrated that animal-associated commensal E. coli isolates possess a diverse repertoire of transferable genetic determinants. Emergence of ESβLs and AmpC-like enzymes is particularly significant. To our knowledge, the bla CTX-M-2 gene has not previously been reported in Ireland. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


Anderson W.A.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Slaughter D.,Odlum Group | Laffey C.,National University of Ireland | Lardner C.,National University of Ireland
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

A pilot scale study designed to quantify the reduction of folic acid during bread baking in Ireland was undertaken. Flour was fortified with different concentrations of folic acid and used to make four different types of commercial bread. The dispersal of folic acid in flour on a pilot scale was variable but better homogeneity would have been achieved in the final bread due to batch size and thorough mixing of the dough. Generally, the heat degradation of folic acid during baking was between 21.9% and 32.1%. Whilst the percentage degradation of folic acid in white pan loaves, white baguettes and brown soda bread were similar the result in wholemeal bread was found to be significantly higher than in other bread types tested. Taking into account all variables affecting folic acid concentration during baking, a concentration of c. 225 μg 100 g -1 folic acid would be needed in flour to deliver commercial bread in Ireland with an average folic acid content of 120 μg 100 g -1 in line with Government requirements. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


PubMed | Marine Institute of Ireland, Food Safety Authority of Ireland, University College Dublin, Teagasc and Food and the Marine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2016

A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system designed to provide a reliable basis for selecting the veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives that might be prioritised for residue testing.

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