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Anderson W.A.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Slaughter D.,Odlum Group | Laffey C.,National University of Ireland | Lardner C.,National University of Ireland
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

A pilot scale study designed to quantify the reduction of folic acid during bread baking in Ireland was undertaken. Flour was fortified with different concentrations of folic acid and used to make four different types of commercial bread. The dispersal of folic acid in flour on a pilot scale was variable but better homogeneity would have been achieved in the final bread due to batch size and thorough mixing of the dough. Generally, the heat degradation of folic acid during baking was between 21.9% and 32.1%. Whilst the percentage degradation of folic acid in white pan loaves, white baguettes and brown soda bread were similar the result in wholemeal bread was found to be significantly higher than in other bread types tested. Taking into account all variables affecting folic acid concentration during baking, a concentration of c. 225 μg 100 g -1 folic acid would be needed in flour to deliver commercial bread in Ireland with an average folic acid content of 120 μg 100 g -1 in line with Government requirements. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Karczmarczyk M.,University College Dublin | Abbott Y.,University College Dublin | Walsh C.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Leonard N.,University College Dublin | Fanning S.,University College Dublin
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

In this study, we examined molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in a collection of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from hospitalized animals in Ireland. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify genes associated with resistance. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (94.6%) and contained gene cassettes recognized previously and implicated mainly in resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams, and trimethoprim (aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, bla OXA-30-aadA1, aacC1-orf1-orf2-aadA1, dfr7). Class 2 integrons (13.5%) contained the dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 gene array. The most frequently occurring phenotypes included resistance to ampicillin (97.3%), chloramphenicol (75.4%), florfenicol (40.5%), gentamicin (54%), neomycin (43.2%), streptomycin (97.3%), sulfonamide (98.6%), and tetracycline (100%). The associated resistance determinants detected included blaTEM, cat, floR, aadB, aphA1, strA-strB, sul2, and tet(B), respectively. The bla CTX-M-2 gene, encoding an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL), and bla CMY-2, encoding an AmpC-like enzyme, were identified in 8 and 18 isolates, respectively. The mobility of the resistance genes was demonstrated using conjugation assays with a representative selection of isolates. High-molecular-weight plasmids were found to be responsible for resistance to multiple antimicrobial compounds. The study demonstrated that animal-associated commensal E. coli isolates possess a diverse repertoire of transferable genetic determinants. Emergence of ESβLs and AmpC-like enzymes is particularly significant. To our knowledge, the bla CTX-M-2 gene has not previously been reported in Ireland. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Holt K.E.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Holt K.E.,University of Melbourne | Phan M.D.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Phan M.D.,University of Queensland | And 14 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains a serious global health concern. Since their emergence in the mid-1970s multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. Typhi now dominate drug sensitive equivalents in many regions. MDR in S. Typhi is almost exclusively conferred by self-transmissible IncHI1 plasmids carrying a suite of antimicrobial resistance genes. We identified over 300 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within conserved regions of the IncHI1 plasmid, and genotyped both plasmid and chromosomal SNPs in over 450 S. Typhi dating back to 1958. Prior to 1995, a variety of IncHI1 plasmid types were detected in distinct S. Typhi haplotypes. Highly similar plasmids were detected in co-circulating S. Typhi haplotypes, indicative of plasmid transfer. In contrast, from 1995 onwards, 98% of MDR S. Typhi were plasmid sequence type 6 (PST6) and S. Typhi haplotype H58, indicating recent global spread of a dominant MDR clone. To investigate whether PST6 conferred a selective advantage compared to other IncHI1 plasmids, we used a phenotyping array to compare the impact of IncHI1 PST6 and PST1 plasmids in a common S. Typhi host. The PST6 plasmid conferred the ability to grow in high salt medium (4.7% NaCl), which we demonstrate is due to the presence in PST6 of the Tn6062 transposon encoding BetU. © 2011 Holt et al.

Fernandes A.R.,UK Environment Agency | Tlustos C.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Rose M.,UK Environment Agency | Smith F.,UK Environment Agency | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

The concentrations of selected polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners (PCNs 52, 53, 66/67, 68, 69, 71/72, 73, 74 and 75) were determined in 100 commonly consumed foods, in the first study on occurrence of these contaminants in the Republic of Ireland. Congener selection was based on current knowledge on PCN occurrence and toxicology, and the availability of reliable reference standards. The determinations were carried out using validated analytical methodology based on 13C 10 labelled internal standardisation and measurement by HRGC-HRMS. The results showed PCN occurrence in the majority of studied foods - milk, fish, dairy and meat products, eggs, animal fat, shellfish, offal, vegetables, cereal products, etc. ranging from 0.09ngkg -1 whole weight for milk to 59.3ngkg -1 whole weight for fish, for the sum of the measured PCNs. The most frequently detected congeners were PCNs 66/67, PCN 52, and PCN 73. The highest concentrations were observed in fish, which generally showed congener profiles that reflect some commercial mixtures. The data compares well with other recently reported data for Western Europe. The dioxin-like toxicity (PCN TEQ) associated with these concentrations is lower than that reported for chlorinated dioxins or PCBs in food from Ireland. The dietary exposure of the Irish adult population to PCNs was calculated following a probabilistic approach, using the full dataset of occur-rence and current consumption data. The estimates of dietary intakes at approximately 0.14pg TEQkgbw -1month -1 for adults on an average diet, reflects the relatively lower occurrence levels. © 2011.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SFS-14b-2015 | Award Amount: 521.83K | Year: 2016

It is acknowledged that historically anti-food fraud capability within Europe has not been consolidated and lacks the coordination and support structures available to those working in food safety. There are various initiatives underway to redress this balance e.g. DGSants Food Fraud network, DG Researchs FoodIntegrity project, as well as numerous national programmes and industry initiatives. One pivotal area that still needs to be addressed is bringing together national research funding bodies to facilitate the development of transnational research programmes. AUTHENT-NET will address this need by mobilising and coordinating relevant research budget holders in order to facilitate the eventual development of a transnational European funding vehicle that will allow Members States (MS) to jointly fund anti-fraud research. Authent-Net comprises a core group of 19 participants from 10 MS, 1 NGO and the US, who are either National research funding bodies; experts in food authenticity, and/or experts in transnational funding mechanisms. AUTHENT-NET will: 1) Bring together relevant MS R&D budget holders to coordinate inter-disciplinary research effort and build a cohesive and sustainable network 2) Undertake stocktaking of existing national research and assess against the international landscape 3) Establish transnational mechanisms and instruments for collating and exchanging information on food authenticity research 4) Develop a high level research and innovation strategy for transnational research and a rationale for a potential ERANET on food authenticity The two year project will have the following expected impacts: improved coordination and communication between relevant MS research budget holders; enhanced cognisance of existing national research; joint strategy for food fraud R&D; agreed priorities and capability to deliver transnational European research on food fraud.

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