Defense Food Research Laboratory

Karnataka, India

Defense Food Research Laboratory

Karnataka, India
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Ghaffari H.,University of Mysore | Venkataramana M.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Nayaka S.C.,University of Mysore | Ghassam B.J.,University of Mysore | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance Preparations of Orthosiphon diffusus (Benth.) have been used by folk medicinal practitioners in the Western Ghats of India for treating inflammation, hepatitis and jaundice for many years and their effectiveness is widely acclaimed among the tribal communities. Aim of the study To evaluate the mechanisms behind the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Orthosiphon diffusus methanol active fraction (MAF) using in vivo (rat) and in vitro (cell culture) models. Materials and methods Neutralization of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by MAF was evaluated in rats. Towards this, serum levels of hepatic injury markers (lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase), antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates, and histological examination were performed. In in vitro studies, mechanisms of neutralization of H2O2-induced toxicity by MAF using MTT, Comet assay and up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes at genetic level (RT-PCR) was performed in HepG2 cells. Results Rats pre-treated with Orthosiphon diffusus MAF demonstrated significantly reduced levels of serum LDH (1.3-fold, p<0.05) and ALP (1.6-fold, p<0.05). Similarly, multiple dose MAF administration demonstrated significantly enhanced levels (p<0.05) of antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates. Histological analysis revealed complete neutralization of CCl 4-induced liver injury by the extract. The in vitro studies demonstrated that, pre-treatment of MAF effectively prevented H 2O2-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and significantly enhanced (~6-fold, p<0.01) expression of genes for antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions Orthosiphon diffusus MAF demonstrated significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by antioxidant mechanisms comparable to silymarin. H2O2-induced oxidative stress was completely neutralized by MAF through enhanced expression of genes for antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, this study validates the use of Orthosiphon diffusus by folk medicinal practitioners in India. Further, MAF of Orthosiphon diffusus can serve as a strong candidate for the development of herbal hepatoprotective agents. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Chethana K.R.,Bangalore University | Senol F.S.,Gazi University | Orhan I.E.,Gazi University | Anilakumar K.R.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Keri R.S.,Bangalore University
Phytomedicine | Year: 2017

Background Drug discovery from natural products as alternatives for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current trend. For which plant is an alternative for searching potential molecule for treating AD. Availability of Cassia tora as weed and abundance in nature makes it as potential source. Many plants group under Leguminosae family has potential medicinal property of which Cassia tora is an appropriate choice, to know potency against AD. Etiology of AD is described by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The Aβ42 has key major role in forming plaques by forming structures like protobirils, oligomers and final fibrilar like structures. Even at in vitro conditions, the peptides have a fibrilar like structure, which was exploited to preliminary screening of natural sources that may be effective in treating AD. Hypothesis/purpose The design of the study was to unravel the potential medicinal property of Cassia tora for its antioxidant, cholinergic and aggregation inhibition activity. Study design We evidenced that the methanol (MeOH), n-hexane (n-hex), petroleum ether (PE) and aqueous (aq) extracts from the leaves of Cassia tora (C. tora) were investigated for their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and anti-amyloidogenic assays. The antioxidant effect using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocaltaeu's and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) reagents, respectively. Results The methanol extract of C. tora exerted the highest inhibition against AChE (55.38 ± 2.28%) and BChE inhibition (50.02 ± 0.79%) at 100 µg/ml concentration. The methanol extract was also found more active in the antioxidant test. The aggregation kinetics was monitored using thioflavin-T (ThT) assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Conclusion The results showed that C. tora methanol extract is able to inhibit the Aβ42 aggregation from monomers and oligomers and also able to dis-aggregate the pre-formed fibrils. The study provides an insight on finding new natural products for AD therapeutics. © 2017

Shayanfar S.,Deutsches Institute fur Lebensmitteltechnik e.V. DIL | Shayanfar S.,Texas A&M University | Chauhan O.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Toepfl S.,Deutsches Institute fur Lebensmitteltechnik e.V. DIL | Heinz V.,Deutsches Institute fur Lebensmitteltechnik e.V. DIL
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The interaction of pulsed electric fields (PEF) with different cryoprotectant and texturizing agents in quality retention of carrot discs was analysed. Increasing the permeability properties by PEF may lead to better accessibility of intracellular materials to freezing and thus reducing the freezing time, leading to better maintaining the texture after thawing. Carrot discs of 5 mm thickness were immersed in different solutions of CaCl2, glycerol, trehalose and tap water, and subsequently were treated with PEF (1 kV/cm, 100 pulses, 4 Hz). Then, the samples were drained and packed along with a control group in separate prepared polypropylene pouches. All the samples were frozen at -18 °C for 24 h and thawed during 3 h at ambient temperature (20 °C) the following day. The quality of the thawed carrot discs was certified by measuring weight loss, firmness, microscopic studies and CIE colorimetric attributes. All the PEF-treated samples, no matter what solution they were soaked in, could significantly (P < 0.05) maintain the firmness as well as colour attributes. However, it was deducted that application of CaCl2 in conjunction with PEF can result in a firmer texture. Firmness analyses determined that application of PEF alone results in 5.84 N, while its combination with CaCl2 leads to higher value of 6.63 N. Firmness in control samples was found to be 3.46 N. The SEM studies supported the results of firmness analysis and depicted more integrity in the cell walls of the samples treated with CaCl2 and glycerol. The weight loss values varied among different samples, and the highest amount and lowest amount were reported in CaCl2 and solely PEF-treated samples, respectively. There was no significant difference between the colour attributes measured in different groups including control sample (P > 0.05). © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Nagaraj N.S.,Vanderbilt University | Anilakumar K.R.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Singh O.V.,University of Pittsburgh
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an important component of garlic (Allium sativum) derivative, has been demonstrated to exert a potential molecular target against human cancers. We investigated DADS-induced expressions of Apaf1, cystatin B, caspase-3 and FADD (fas-associated protein with death domain) in breast, prostate and lung cancer cells. These showed coincident data when further examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, DADS induced a marked amount of Bax translocation, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. DADS-treated tumor cells triggered mitochondria-mediated signaling pathways that led to a significant increase in apoptosis induction. Further studies with caspase-3 and caspase-9 inhibitors (zDEVD-fmk and zLEHD-fmk, respectively) proved that DADS induces apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. DADS is only an agent used in the study. The molecular mechanism presented therefore provides strong additional support to the hypothesis that DADS is a strong inducer of apoptosis through a Bax-triggered mitochondria-mediated and caspase-3-dependent pathway. This study shows clearly that DADS causes caspase-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells through a Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, the mitochondrial pathway might be the target for cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy by DADS. © 2010.

Shayanfar S.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL | Chauhan O.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Toepfl S.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL | Heinz V.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The combination of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and texturizing and antifreeze agents on quality retention of defrosted potato strips were studied. Potato strips (10 mm thickness, 100 g) were placed in different solutions (1% w/v) of CaCl2, glycerol, trehalose as well as NaCl and sucrose, treated with PEF (0.5 kV cm-1, 100 pulses, 4 Hz). Then, all the samples were soaked in the same solutions for 10 min. After draining, samples were packed into polypropylene pouches and stored at -18 °C for 12 h. Samples were thawed out at room temperature (20 °C) in 3 h. Untreated controls and PEF treated control samples were also frozen and thawed in similar conditions. To assess the potato strip quality, the thawed samples were analysed for moisture content, weight loss, firmness and colour attributes. The results indicate that PEF treatment by itself is not a suitable pre-treatment method for frozen potato strips and should be assisted by CaCl2 and trehalose treatment to prevent softening after defrosting. Firmness analyses determined that application of PEF alone results in 2.38 N. However, PEF in combination with CaCl2 and trehalose result in 2.97 N and 2.99 N, respectively, which are both significantly firmer than the samples solely treated with PEF. CaCl2 and trehalose were effective in not only maintaining the structural integrity of the cells, but also retaining colour attributes. The L* value was found to be higher (P < 0.05) in CaCl2 and trehalose treated samples (58.95 and 57.21, respectively), as compared to PEF treated samples (53.97) denoting a darker colour. Application of CaCl2 and trehalsoe in combination with PEF also resulted in significantly less weight loss after thawing. © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Kamalakanth C.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Ginson J.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Bindu J.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Venkateswarlu R.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | And 3 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2011

The effect of different high pressure treatments on K-value, total plate count, enterobacteriaceae and organoleptic characteristics of yellowfin tuna chunks packed in ethyl vinyl alcohol (EVOH) films during chill storage (2 ± 1 °C) was studied. 50 g of fresh tuna chunks were placed in EVOH multilayer film pouches and vacuum packed for the trials. Tuna chunks were subjected to 100, 200 and 300 MPa for 5 min at 25 °C. Control was vacuum packed tuna without pressure treatment. K value, microbiological analysis and sensory characteristics were evaluated at periodic intervals. The K-value of the samples was found to decrease with increase in pressure when compared to the control. However, K-value was found to increase in all the samples during storage. Higher pressure treatment showed a decrease in the total plate count in the samples which increased during the storage. The Enterobacteriaceae decreased with increasing pressure and during storage. Control samples were sensorally acceptable up to 20 days of storage. During the storage period of 30 days 200 MPa treated tuna chunks was found most acceptable based on above parameters. Industrial relevance: High pressure processing is a non thermal processing method which has wide applications in food industry. Fish is a highly perishable commodity and it has a limited shelf life in chill conditions. High pressure treatment has been found to effectively extend the shelf life of various products. In this study, HPP has been effectively demonstrated for enhancing the storage period of tuna at low temperature. Such studies can be commercially applied by fish processing industries to preserve the valuable catch and can enhance the marketing potential of tuna. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ramana M.V.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Nayaka S.C.,University of Mysore | Balakrishna K.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Murali H.S.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Batra H.V.,Defense Food Research Laboratory
Mycology | Year: 2012

Fumonisins are a group of 20 chemically related toxic fungal metabolites mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. In this study, attempt has been made to develop rapid detection of fumonisin-producing Fusarium species from freshly harvested rice and finger millet by novel and sensitive polymerase chain reaction-deoxyribonucleic acid (PCR-DNA) probe. One set of oligonucleotide primers was designed targeting FUM13 gene involved in fumonisin biosynthesis and PCR-DNA probe was developed for dot-blot hybridization assay. The sensitivity of developed PCR-DNA probe was determined; it could detect 10 pg genomic DNA and 1 pg of purified PCR product. To determine the practical usefulness, the developed PCR-DNA probe was evaluated onto the rice grains that were artificially inoculated with toxigenic fungal spores. Sensitivity of the developed probe was found to be 1 × 106 CFU per gram of the rice sample using dot-blot hybridization assay. The specificity of the DNA probe was validated by testing against an array of Fusarium, including Gibberella zeae clade and other fungal strains. All PCR-DNA probe results were further cross-checked with conventional high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. PCR-DNA probe results were equivocally matched with the HPTLC method. The novel PCR-DNA probe developed in this study may find application in rapid detection of fumonisin-producing Fusarium isolates from contaminated cereal grains. © 2012 Copyright 2012 Mycological Society of China.

Kumar T.D.K.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Urs R.M.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Balakrishna K.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Murali H.S.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Hybridoma | Year: 2010

A three component complex system, designated hemolysin BL (HBL), is believed to be the major diarrheal toxin of Bacillus cereus. Identification of HBL toxin by immunoassay is advantageous over PCR as it detects the expressed form of the gene, thereby differentiating pathogenic strains from nonpathogenic strains. However, most of the immunoassays, like the BCET RPLA kit, are based on the utilization of polyclonal antisera, which show cross-reactivity at times with other Bacillus species. The use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) binding specifically to the B. cereus HBL toxin epitopes could be advantageous. To address the problems of non-specificity of the reported detection systems and toxicity of L 1 and L 2 components during expression, we made use of recombinant chimeric rHBL protein to generate murine monoclonal antibodies. From among the L 2 MAbs stabilized, immunoblotting analyses on B. cereus strains revealed nine MAbs to be directed against the hbl D encoded L 1 protein, two to the hbl A encoded B protein, and one with the hbl C encoded L 2 protein. When tested on a large number of B. cereus standard and other related Bacillus species, there was no cross-reactivity observed among the group of MAbs. The presence of HBL component toxins among the strains recovered from food and environmental sources was evaluated by these sets of MAbs and the results compared with that of PCRs for the individual HBL toxin gene components. The HBL toxin profile characterization of the strains by Western blot using MAbs almost matched with the PCR profiles. The MAbs reported here, therefore, can be of immense help in providing the B. cereus identification/detection reliably, rapidly, and at a relatively low cost. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Jagannath A.,Defense Food Research Laboratory | Kumar M.,Defense Food Research Laboratory
International Journal of Fruit Science | Year: 2016

Naringin, a bitter bioflavonoid of orange, widely reported for health promoting benefits is also responsible for reduced acceptability of many orange products where peels are integral components. The current study quantified naringin concentrations present in three types of oranges viz., Nagpur (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Kinnow (Citrus nobilis × Citrus deliciosa), and Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) spectrophotometrically and by high performance liquid chromatograph. The oranges were subjected to repeated blanching at a mild blanching temperature of 65 °C, subjected to osmodehydration and the loss of naringin monitored during processing as well as during extended storage of up to 6 months at room temperature. A wide range of physicochemical parameters were monitored at monthly intervals during the entire period of storage. Blanching reduced the naringin content by 50% and storage further decreased it to 3–10 mg/100g for all of the cultivars studied. In terms of physicochemical parameters and sensory analysis, Kinnow and Mandarin cultivars are better suited for osmotic dehydration. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

PubMed | Defense Food Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dietary supplements | Year: 2012

Medicinal preparations based on sea buckthorn (SBT), a medicinal plant, have been clinically used to treat different diseases. We have developed a dietary additive based on SBT, the effect of which was evaluated against hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), which was used to induce oxidative stress and toxicity in rats. Six groups of six male rats each were maintained for 12 weeks as (a) Control, (b) HCH, (c) 1% SBT based herbal formulation (SHF) incorporated diet, (d) 1% SHF incorporated diet + HCH, (e) 2% SHF incorporated diet, and (f) 2% SHF incorporated diet + HCH. Results revealed that HCH induction resulted in a significant hepatic lipid peroxidation with reduction in antioxidants and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The prefeeding of SHF resulted in decreased hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and increased the multicomponent antioxidant system namely glutathione (GSH), GSH-peroxidase, GSH-reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and GSH S-transferase activities. The study suggests that HCH induction resulted in free radicals, which could be reduced by the incorporation of the herbal formulation in diet.

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