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Singh G.,Food Research Div | Stephan C.,Perkin Elmer Corporation | Westerhoff P.,Arizona State University | Carlander D.,Nanotechnology Industries Assoc | Duncan T.V.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

This article is one of a series of 4 that reports on a task of the NanoRelease Food Additive project of the International Life Science Institute Center for Risk Science Innovation and Application to identify, evaluate, and develop methods that are needed to confidently detect, characterize, and quantify intentionally produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) released from food along the alimentary tract. This particular article focuses on the problem of detecting ENMs in food, paying special attention to matrix interferences and how to deal with them. In this review, an in-depth analysis of the literature related to detection of ENMs in complex matrices is presented. The literature review includes discussions of sampling methods, such as centrifugation and ENM extraction. Available analytical methods, as well as emerging methods, are also presented. The article concludes with a summary of findings and an overview of potential knowledge gaps and targets for method development in this area. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Source

Cao X.-L.,Food Research Div
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

Phthalates are a group of diesters of ortho-phthalic acid (dialkyl or alkyl aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid). Higher-molecular-weight phthalates, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), are primarily used as plasticizers to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, while the lower-molecular-weight phthalates, such as diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), are widely used as solvents to hold color and scent in various consumer and personal care products. Phthalates have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to volatilization and leaching from their widespread applications, and thus contamination of the environment has become another important source for phthalates in foods in addition to migration from packaging materials. Human exposure to phthalates has been an increased concern due to the findings from toxicology studies in animals. DEHP, one of the important and widely used phthalates, is a rodent liver carcinogen. DEHP, DBP, BBzP, and several phthalate metabolites, such as monobutyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, are teratogenic in animals. Since foods are the major source of exposure to phthalates, information on levels of phthalates in foods is important for human exposure assessment. The objective of this review is to identify the knowledge gaps for future investigations by reviewing levels of a wide range of phthalates in a variety of foods, such as bottled water, soft drinks, infant formula, human milk, total diet foods, and others, migration of phthalates from various food-packaging materials, and traditional and new methodologies for the determination of phthalates in foods. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

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