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Zuo H.,Food Republic
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in Chinese adults without known diabetes. Study subjects were 1070 Chinese adults aged 18 years and above in Jiangsu Province who participated in the 2006 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Usual dietary intake was assessed by using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using a principal component analysis method. Insulin resistance was defined as the highest quartile of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores. We derived four dietary patterns in our population by factor analysis: the Western, High-wheat, Traditional and Hedonic pattern. After adjusted for potential confounders, the Western pattern was significantly associated with greater odds for insulin resistance (P for trend = 0·009), while a significant negative association was found between the Hedonic pattern and insulin resistance (P for trend = 0·035). Compared with the lowest quartile of the Western pattern, the highest quartile had higher odds of insulin resistance (adjusted OR 1·89, 95 % CI 1·12, 3·19). There was a 42 % decrease in the odds after adjustment for all covariates in the highest quartile of the Hedonic pattern, compared with the lowest quartile (adjusted OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·34, 0·99). HOMA-IR levels as a continuous variable also increased across the quartiles of the Western pattern and decreased across the quartiles of the Hedonic pattern. In conclusion, dietary patterns were significantly associated with insulin resistance in Chinese adults without known diabetes.

Ostry V.,Food Republic | Malir F.,University of Hradec Kralove | Ruprich J.,Food Republic
Toxins | Year: 2013

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a very important mycotoxin, and its research is focused right now on the new findings of OTA, like being a complete carcinogen, information about OTA producers and new exposure sources of OTA. Citrinin (CIT) is another important mycotoxin, too, and its research turns towards nephrotoxicity. Both additive and synergistic effects have been described in combination with OTA. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Aspergillus Section Circumdati (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, A. steynii) and Aspergillus Section Nigri (Aspergillus carbonarius, A. foetidus, A. lacticoffeatus, A. niger, A. sclerotioniger, A. tubingensis), mostly in subtropical and tropical areas. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum, notably in temperate and colder zones. CIT is produced in foodstuffs by Monascus species (Monascus purpureus, M. ruber) and Penicillium species (Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. radicicola, P. verrucosum). OTA was frequently found in foodstuffs of both plant origin (e.g., cereal products, coffee, vegetable, liquorice, raisins, wine) and animal origin (e.g., pork/poultry). CIT was also found in foodstuffs of vegetable origin (e.g., cereals, pomaceous fruits, black olive, roasted nuts, spices), food supplements based on rice fermented with red microfungi Monascus purpureus and in foodstuffs of animal origin (e.g., cheese). © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Ayaz N.D.,Kirikkale University | Gencay Y.E.,Kirikkale University | Erol I.,Food Republic
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The prevalence and seasonal distribution of E. coli O157:H7+/H7- in an array of aged cattle at slaughter and its dissemination with slaughterhouse wastewater over a two year period in Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 720 samples (240 rectoanal mucosal swap [RAMS], 240 carcass sponge and 240 bile samples) of 240 cattle categorized according to age, gender, breed and sampling site were collected along with additional 24 wastewater samples and were subjected to immunomagnetic separation based cultivation technique to efficiently isolate E. coli O157 from the background flora. Identification (rfbEO157, fliCh7), detection of major virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3 and espA), intimin variants (eae-α1, eae-α2, eae-β, eae-β1, eae-β2, eae-γ1 and eae-γ2/θ) and shiga toxin variants (stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f and stx2g) of all the isolates were assessed by PCR. From 10 (4.2%) of RAMS and 11 (4.6%) of carcass sponge samples and 5 (20.8%) of slaughterhouse wastewater samples, a total of 102 colonies (99 sorbitol negative and 3 sorbitol positive) were isolated. Overall, 17 (7.1%) and 15 (6.3%) of 240 sampled cattle were shown to harbor E. coli O157 and E. coli O157:H7, respectively either in their RAMS or carcass sponge samples analyzed. Statistically significant differences between categories; season, age, gender and breed of cattle were not observed (p>0.05). None of the isolated E. coli O157:H7+/H7- strains harbored any of the investigated intimin types other than eaeγ1 or shiga toxin variants stx1d, stx2e, stx2f or stx2g while all were lpfA1-3+ except 5 E. coli O157:H7- strains. Intimin variant eaeγ1 and shiga toxin 1 variant stx1c were detected from all of the eaeA+ (97/102, 95.1%) and stx1 + (32/102, 31.3%) strains, respectively while from stx2 + (80/102, 78.4%) isolates, both stx2c (68/80, 85.0%) and stx2d (12/80, 15.0%) variants were determined. In the last decade, prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 has an increasing trend in cattle. Slaughterhouses are the significant sources of environmental contamination with E. coli O157:H7. Isolation and molecular characterization of sorbitol fermenting E. coli O157:H7 are a novel finding and may lead to a revision of reference isolation procedure of E. coli O157:H7 in future. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

The use of nitrofuran antibiotics in food-producing species has been banned within the European Union (EU) since 1993. Analysis of their residues in food has focused on using LC-MS/MS for the determination of their metabolites using stable isotopes as internal standards. Since AB SCIEX launched the first commercial LC-MS/MS instrument in 1989, most of these have used Selective Reaction Monitoring (SRM) technique. Triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS systems suffer from cross-talk, which can lead to incorrect identification and quantitation. Concern over residual nitrofuran has persisted for a long time, with most of the nitrofuran alerts originating from semicarbazide (SEM) in shrimp. The aim of this study is to review evidence from the literature and experimental studies concerning the formation of SEM from food processing and to discuss the natural occurrence of SEM in shrimp and aquatic organisms. Although SEM can form from azodicarbonamide, biurea, and homologous compounds, biurea readily reacts with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (2-NB) to form a derivative that LC-MS/MS has incorrectly identified as SEM. Concerning the natural occurrence of SEM in crustaceans, cross-talk and misleading data have been frequently reported in the literature. Cross-talk symptoms should be carefully considered because they can affect the reliable detection and determination of SEM using a stable isotope as the internal standard. Twelve cases of non-compliance in shrimp from China and Korea were investigated: 7 cases of amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) in the steamed meat of Pacific white shrimp, 1 case of AOZ in freshwater prawns, and 4 cases of SEM in freshwater prawns. The ease of purchasing medical-grade nitrofurans on the web and monitoring data suggest that the natural occurrence of SEM in prawns and shrimp is questionable, and that adulteration is a more likely scenario. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Tarikahya-Hacioglu B.,Food Republic
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Crambe is a promising crop since the species of this genus is used in industry, medicine and as vegetable. For the present investigation, 32 germplasm accessions representing to 7 Crambe taxa were collected from different regions of Turkey. These collections included 17 of Crambe orientalis var. orientalis, 2 of C. orientalis var. sulphurea, 1 of C. orientalis var. dasycarpa, 1 of C. grandiflora, 4 of C. tataria var. tataria, 2 of C. tataria var. aspera and 5 of C. maritima. Clustering analysis and 2-dimensional principal coordinates analysis was used to represent the genetic relations among taxa by using ISSR data. Clustering analysis clearly distinguished the species groups. Two major clusters were formed; first consisted of C. orientalis and C. grandiflora taxa, the second consisted of C. tataria and C. maritima taxa. Principal coordinates analysis showed 4 species groups: C. orientalis, C. grandiflora, C. tataria and C. maritima. C. grandiflora placed closer to C. orientalis accessions and C. maritima accessions placed closer to C. tataria group. The purpose of the present investigation was to understand the genetic affinities among wild relatives of Crambe and to provide information on genetic relationship of the different species of the genus for their efficient use in future breeding programs especially in Turkey and environs. The findings on genetic affinities from this study also provide important clues for solving some taxonomical conflicts of the genus. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Fric P.,Charles University | Gabrovska D.,Food Republic | Nevoral J.,Charles University
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2011

Oats in a gluten-free diet increase the diet's nutritional value, but their use remains controversial. Contamination with prolamins of other cereals is frequent, and some clinical and experimental studies support the view that a subgroup of celiac patients may be intolerant to pure oats. Thus, this issue is more complex than previously suggested. In order to produce oats that are safe for all celiac patients, the following topics should be addressed: selection of oat cultivars with low avenin content, research on such recombinant varieties of oats, development of assay methods to detect avenins in oat products, guidelines for the agricultural processing of oats and the manufacture of oat products, as well as guidelines for following up with celiac patients who consume oats. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

Dankook University, Food Republic and Sensor Technology Inc. | Date: 2014-04-02

A method and kit for measuring a concentration of an antibiotic are provided. The method of measuring a concentration of an antibiotic includes preparing magnetic particles bound to an antibiotic, preparing silica-coated fluorescent particles to which at least one antibody of the antibiotic is bound, allowing the magnetic particles to react with the silica-coated fluorescent particles, and irradiating the reacted silica-coated fluorescent particles with laser beams.

The present invention relates to a recombinant virus inhibiting foot-and-mouth disease virus, and more specifically, to a recombinant adenovirus for simultaneously expressing pig interferon alpha and gamma through the insertion of foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A gene so as to allow pig interferon alpha and gamma to be treated at one time, thereby increasing inhibitory effects for foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Postech Academy Industry Foundation and Food Republic | Date: 2013-11-26

The present invention relates to a method for detecting food poisoning bacteria, and more particularly, to a method for rapidly and quantitatively isolating food poisoning bacteria contents which contaminate food and the like. The method according to the present invention is characterized by including the steps of: introducing magnetic nanoparticles which can bind to bacteria into a sample for measuring the bacteria so as to bind the magnetic nanoparticles to the bacteria; isolating the magnetic nanoparticles; passing the nanoparticles which are isolated by using magnetism through a solution having high viscosity so as to separate the magnetic nanoparticles to which bacteria are bound from magnetic nanoparticles to which no bacteria are bound; and quantifying the magnetic nanoparticles to which bacteria are bound.

Food Republic and Dankook University | Date: 2013-09-27

A method and kit for measuring a concentration of an antibiotic are provided. The method of measuring a concentration of an antibiotic includes preparing magnetic particles bound to an antibiotic, preparing silica-coated fluorescent particles to which at least one antibody of the antibiotic is bound, allowing the magnetic particles to react with the silica-coated fluorescent particles, and irradiating the reacted silica-coated fluorescent particles with laser beams.

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