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Khaldun M.A.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Bahruddin S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Noor Hasani H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Afidah Abdul Rahim,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Talib K.M.,Food Quality Control Laboratory
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2010

A simple analytical method for the determination of propionic acid and propionates in bakery products using a simple sample preparation procedure is described. The method involves the conversion of propionates to the non-ionized molecular form by adding glacial acetic acid, which is at the same time efficiently extracted into dichloromethane. After vortexing for 1 min, the extract was directly injected into a capillary gas chromatographic column with flame ionization detector. The method was applied for the determination of propionates in 112 commercial bakery samples. The levels of propionic acid plus propionates in bread, cake/rolls, burger/hot dog buns and pita breads ranged from 197-1273, 98-1846, 546-1932 and 479-1680 μg mL-1, respectively. No propionate was detected in any of the 36 biscuit samples analyzed. © 2008 IFRJ.


Rahim A.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Saad B.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Osman H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Hashim N.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

A simple gas chromatography-flame ionisation method was initially developed for the simultaneous determination of the prohibited flavours, namely diethylene glycol (DEG), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGME) and coumarin in food samples. The analytes were extracted using methanol, and was sonicated for 10 min. The extracts were filtered and directly injected into the GC unit that was fitted with a capillary ATTM-AQUAWAX column. Caffeine, which was found in some of the soft drink samples were also successfully separated. Excellent separation of these flavours and caffeine was achieved in about 23 min. Limit of detection, linear range, and reproducibility of the retention time were evaluated. Average recoveries in the ranges of 93.44-97.54% (RSD, 2.68%) for DEGME, 92.99-101.45% (RSD, 2.99%) for DEG, 90.64-100.00% (RSD, 1.99%) for coumarin and 94.62-97.50% (RSD, 2.54%) for caffeine were obtained. None of the food items analysed was found to contain coumarin, DEG or DEGME. However, of the 35 soft drinks and fruit juices that were analysed, eleven samples were found to contain caffeine, but only one exceeded the legal limit. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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