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Du L.,University of Alberta | Khiari Z.,University of Alberta | Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Betti M.,University of Alberta
Poultry Science

Gelatins were prepared from chicken and turkey heads in a series of batch extractions at 2 different temperatures (50 and 60°C), and their composition and functional properties were evaluated. Gelatin yield from chicken and turkey heads was 52.29 and 62.76%, respectively, on a dry weight basis relative to the total collagen content in the raw materials. The gel strength of turkey gelatins varied from 332.7 to 368.4 g, which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chicken gelatins. Both chicken and turkey head gelatins had high solubility at acidic and alkaline pH values. However, turkey head gelatins showed better emulsifying and foaming properties compared with chicken gelatins. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Li H.,University of Alberta | Garcia-Hernandez R.,University of Alberta | Driedger D.,Food Processing Development Center | McMullen L.M.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Food Microbiology

The pressure resistance of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) depends on food matrix. This study compared the resistance of two five-strain E. coli cocktails, as well as the pressure resistant strain E. coli AW1.7, to hydrostatic pressure application in bruschetta, tzatziki, yoghurt and ground beef at 600 MPa, 20 °C for 3 min and during post-pressure survival at 4 °C. Pressure reduced STEC in plant and dairy products by more than 5 logs (cfu/ml) but not in ground beef. The pH affected the resistance of STEC to pressure as well as the post-pressure survival. E. coli with food constituents including calcium, magnesium, glutamate, caffeic acid and acetic acid were treated at 600 MPa, 20 °C. All compounds exhibited a protective effect on E. coli. The antimicrobial compounds ethanol and phenylethanol enhanced the inactivation by pressure. Calcium and magnesium also performed protective effects on E. coli during storage. Glutamate, glutamine or glutathione did not significantly influence the post-pressure survival over 12 days. Preliminary investigation on cell membrane was further performed through the use of fluorescence probe 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine. Pressure effectively permeabilised cell membrane, whereas calcium showed no effects on membrane permeabilisation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jarpa-Parra M.,University of Alberta | Bamdad F.,University of Alberta | Wang Y.,University of Alberta | Tian Z.,University of Alberta | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology

Response surface methodology was used to optimize alkaline extraction of protein from lentil flour to maximize both protein content and yield. Solid/solvent ratio and pH were the significant factors that determined protein extraction efficiency. At the optimized condition of pH 9.0 and solid/solvent ratio of 1:10(g:mL), a yield of 14.5g of protein extract/100g of flour was obtained with a protein content of 82g/100g at (22°C) after 1h of extraction. The impact of extraction pH on the molecular structures and functionalities of lentil protein was investigated. Increasing the extraction pH to 10 caused partial protein hydrolysis and unfolding as suggested by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, leading to improved protein solubility and gelling property. Environmental pH influenced protein solubility and surface charge, and subsequently the gelling and foaming properties. The foaming capacity was especially strong, comparable to whey and egg proteins. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Han J.(J.),Food Processing Development Center | Janz J.A.M.,Food Processing Development Center | Gerlat M.,Consumer Product Testing Center
Food Research International

With nearly two million North Americans suffering gluten intolerance, the objective of this study was to develop gluten-free, pulse-based cracker snacks that exploit the anti-allergenic and health-enhancing nature of pulses ingredients. Nine commercially available pulse fractions (chickpea, green and red lentil, yellow pea, pinto and navy bean flours and pea protein, starch and fibre isolates) were evaluated in a model cracker formulation. Early prototype crackers exhibited light colour, good flavour, and crisp texture. Based on its acceptability data, processing characteristics and consultation with an industry partner, the chickpea cracker formulation was advanced to a commercial-scale processing trial. The physical and nutritional characteristics of these pulse crackers were similar to existing products on the market. The products were scored highly during consumer acceptance testing. Interestingly, the % daily values per serving of iron in the chickpea crackers were 3-6 times higher than existing products. Based on these findings, pulse-based, gluten-free crackers have good potential for both consumer appeal and imparting health benefits. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Gaudette N.J.,Food Processing Development Center
Meat Science

Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of restructured hams. Product functionality and safety were assessed using instrumental measures (yield, purge, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture) and microbiological assessment. Sensory attributes were evaluated using consumer sensory panelists.All alternative formulations resulted in products with sodium contents below the Health CheckTM Program guidelines, without detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with sea salt replacers (OF45, OF60). Sodium reduction had no effect on the shelf life of the cooked ham with up to 60days of refrigerated storage. Consumer hedonics for flavor and aftertaste were lower for OF45 and OF60 compared to control, suggesting that these salt replacers may not be appropriate for inclusion in these products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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