Morris Plains, NJ, United States
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Corti H.R.,University of Buenos Aires | Angell C.A.,Arizona State University | Auffret T.,Pfizer | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | And 4 more authors.
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2010

This paper describes the main thermodynamic concepts related to the construction of supplemented phase (or state) diagrams (SPDs) for aqueous solutions containing vitrifying agents used in the cryo-and dehydro-preservation of natural (foods, seeds, etc.) and synthetic (pharmaceuticals) products. It also reviews the empirical and theoretical equations employed to predict equilibrium transitions (ice freezing, solute solubility) and non-equilibrium transitions (glass transition and the extrapolated freezing curve). The comparison with experimental results is restricted to carbohydrate aqueous solutions, because these are the most widely used cryoprotectant agents. The paper identifies the best standard procedure to determine the glass transition curve over the entire water-content scale, and how to determine the temperature and concentration of the maximally freeze-concentrated solution. © 2010 IUPAC.

Kweon M.,Campbell Soup Company Pepperidge Farm | Slade L.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Gannon D.,Kraft Foods Inc.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients-flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Roos Y.H.,University College Cork | Karel M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Labuza T.P.,University of Minnesota | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Crystalline structures of sugars, particularly that of sucrose, depend on crystallization conditions and the presence of impurities. Sugar crystals show melting that often occurs at low temperatures with time-and temperature- dependent characteristics. Melting at low temperatures can be accounted for by the presence of impurties and defects. Sugar crystals also contain noncrystalline regions that may undergo decomposition and subsequent dissolution at the decomposition interface and acceleration of decomposition reactions. Such processes with melting establish a supersaturated condition for the remaining crystals, leading to a time-dependent melting point depression and subsequent melting of the remaining crystals. Decomposition of sugars, as well as dissolution and melting of sugar crystals, are separate phenomena, although they are commonly found to coincide. Decomposition of sugars requires the presence and mobility of molecules for reactions outside the crystal lattice; that is, the molecular mobility of amorphous or melted regions is a prerequisite for decomposition, whereas melting of sugar crystals occurs as a separate thermodynamic process with no chemical change of the molecules. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Kweon M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Slade L.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Souza E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate, and particle-size reduction) in cake-baking functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects, but postmilling to reduce flour particle size was a less significant factor. RVA results showed that starch pasting was accelerated, and both peak and set-back viscosities were enhanced, with increasing extent of chlorination. These effects were exaggerated by the high sugar concentration relevant to cake baking, compared to the same effects in water. Cake baking with chlorinated flours, in a formulation with 50% sugar (%S) and 275 parts total solvent (TS), showed that, as the extent of chlorination increased, cake moisture content and edge height decreased. Cake center height and shape factor were curvilinear, with maxima near flour with pH 4.6. Dramatic collapse occurred for cakes baked with unchlorinated flour samples, due to delayed starch pasting, as documented by time-lapse photography and comparison to the geometry of the final cooled cakes. Starch pasting and egg white setting occurred too earlyfor the cakes baked with excessively chlorinated flour (pH ≤4.0), but too late for the cakes baked with unchlorinated or insufficiently chlorinated flours (pH ≥4.9), compared to the ideal starch pasting and egg white setting behavior with appropriately chlorinated flours (pH >4.0 and <4.9). Informal sensory texture evaluation showed that cake mouthfeel was related to both moisture content per se and the relationship between moisture content and cake relative humidity (%RH). Excessive flour chlorination resulted in unacceptably dry cake mouthfeel.

Kweon M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Slade L.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2011

A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. To identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium bicarbonate), sugar concentration (%S), and total solvent (TS) on cracker-baking performance were explored. From preliminary experiments to establish a production procedure, 10 min of dough-mixing time, a cord-weave baking mesh, and a 500°F oven temperature were selected. For the leavening system, increasing ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) level at constant sodium bicarbonate (soda) and monocalcium phosphate (MCP) levels resulted in increased cracker height. For the diagnostic formula, 1.25 g of soda, 1.25 g of MCP, and 1.25 g of ABC were selected, based on 100 g of flour. As the sugar concentration in the cracker formula, at constant total solvent (38 TS), decreased to <20%, the resulting cracker dough became softer, and the baked cracker exhibited an increased blistering tendency because of a too-high formula water level. In contrast, a cracker dough formulated with >40% sugar concentration was too crumbly to handle and sheet. As the total solvent in the cracker formula increased at constant sugar concentration (≈23.7%S), the resulting dough became softer. A dough with 34 TS was too crumbly to handle, while doughs with 42 and 46 TS were too soft to handle and resulted in blistering. Therefore, 38 TS and 23.7%S were identified for the diagnostic formula. Crackers baked with a hard wheat flour, a soft wheat flour, and blends validated the utility of the developed method.

Kweon M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Slade L.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2011

A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. Using a diagnostic formula and procedure, dough rheology was analyzed to evaluate the extent of gluten development during mixing and machining. The effects of enzymes on cracker-baking performance were explored to assess the impact of damaged starch and pentosans (arabinoxylans). Validation of the method for predicting gluten functionality and performance was conducted using various flours. Cracker dough rheology, measured in the direction of sheeting, showed a positive correlation with the ratio of cracker height to dough weight, but a negative correlation with the ratio of cracker width to length. Use of α-amylase and xylanase demonstrated the improving effects of enzymes on cracker-baking performance of flour resulting from decreased dough crumbliness and increased cracker height. Flour gluten performance ratio of lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LA SRC)/(sodium carbonate [SC] SRC + sucrose [Suc] SRC) (SRC LA/[SC+Suc]) was a better predictor of cracker geometry than was flour gluten functionality value of LA SRC alone. Flours with a gluten performance ratio of <0.52 produced unacceptable, excessive blistering during cracker baking. © 2011 AACC International, Inc.

Van Steertegem B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pareyt B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Slade L.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | And 2 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2013

The impact of heat treating wheat flour (for 2 or 5 h at 80 or 100°C) on its functional properties was studied with solvent retention capacity (SRC) tests and related to changes in individual groups of flour constituents. Heat treatments increased the overall water retention capacity (from 55.6% for control flour to 62.4% for flour heated 5 h at 100°C) as well as sucrose SRC (from 85.0 to 113.5%), although no changes were observed in sodium carbonate SRC. The decrease in lactic acid SRC values (from 113.1 to 97.4%) indicated that heat treatment restricted swelling of the protein network. As deduced from a decrease in both the level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing medium and the level of free sulfhydryl groups, the restricted swelling was related to protein cross-linking within the flour particles. Such upfront polymerization prevented proper hydration and gluten network formation during mixing. Starch (swelling) properties were also affected by heat treatment. Finally, the impact of heat treatment on flour SRC profiles was comparable to that noted when chlorinating wheat flour. © 2013 AACC International, Inc.

Kweon M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kweon M.,Campbell Soup Company | Slade L.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy | Levine H.,Food Polymer Science Consultancy
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Solvent retention capacity (SRC) technology, its history, principles, and applications are reviewed. Originally, SRC testing was created and developed for evaluating soft wheat flour functionality, but it has also been shown to be applicable to evaluating flour functionality for hard wheat products. SRC is a solvation test for flours that is based on the exaggerated swelling behavior of component polymer networks in selected individual diagnostic solvents. SRC provides a measure of solvent compatibility for the three functional polymeric components of flour- gluten, damaged starch, and pentosans-which in turn enables prediction of the functional contribution of each of these flour components to overall flour functionality and resulting finished-product quality. The pattern of flour SRC values for the four diagnostic SRC solvents (water, dilute aqueous lactic acid, dilute aqueous sodium carbonate, and concentrated aqueous sucrose solutions), rather than any single individual SRC value, has been shown to be critical to various successful end-use applications. Moreover, a new predictive SRC parameter, the gluten performance index (GPI), defined as GPI = lactic acid/(sodium carbonate + sucrose) SRC values, has been found to be an even better predictor of the overall performance of flour glutenin in the environment of other modulating networks of flour polymers. SRC technology is a unique diagnostic tool for predicting flour functionality, and its applications in soft wheat breeding, milling, and baking are increasing markedly as a consequence of many successful, recently published demonstrations of its extraordinary power and scope. © 2011 AACC International, Inc.

PubMed | Food Polymer Science Consultancy and Pusan National University
Type: | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2017

The effects of heat and pressure on protein denaturation in soy flour were explored by an experimental design that used pressure (atmospheric to 600 MPa), temperature (room to 90 C), time (1 to 60 min), and type of aqueous plasticizer (NaCl, sucrose, betaine, and lactobionic acid (LBA)) as factors. When 50% (w/w) soy flour-water paste was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated for 20 min at 25 C, the treatment at 200 MPa showed a small effect on denaturation of only the 7S soy globulin, but the treatment at 600 MPa showed a significant effect on denaturation of both the 7S and 11S soy globulins. The treatment at 60 C showed a less-pronounced effect on denaturation of the 11S globulin, even at 600 MPa, but that at 90 C showed a similar extent of denaturation of the 11S globulin at 600 MPa to that at 25 C. Chaotropic 2N NaCl, 50% sucrose-, 50% betaine-, or 50% LBA-water solutions showed protective effects on protein denaturation during HHP treatment at 25 C. Although LBA enhanced the extent of thermostability of soy protein less than did 2N NaCl, LBA exhibited better stabilization against pressure. The results from DSC analysis demonstrated that thermostable soy proteins were not always barostable.

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