Albany, NY, United States
Albany, NY, United States

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Sauders B.D.,Cornell University | Sauders B.D.,Food Laboratory Division | Overdevest J.,Cornell University | Fortes E.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

A total of 442 Listeria isolates, including 234 Listeria seeligeri, 80 L. monocytogenes, 74 L. welshimeri, 50 L. innocua, and 4 L. marthii isolates, were obtained from 1,805 soil, water, and other environmental samples collected over 2 years from four urban areas and four areas representing natural environments. Listeria spp. showed similar prevalences in samples from natural (23.4%) and urban (22.3%) environments. While L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were significantly associated with natural environments (P < 0.0001), L. innocua and L. monocytogenes were significantly associated with urban environments (P < 0.0001). Sequencing of sigB for all isolates revealed 67 allelic types with a higher level of allelic diversity among isolates from urban environments. Some Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types showed significant associations with specific urban and natural areas. Nearest-neighbor analyses also showed that certain Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types were spatially clustered within both natural and urban environments, and there was evidence that these species and allelic types persisted over time in specific areas. Our data show that members of the genus Listeria not only are common in urban and natural environments but also show species- and subtype-specific associations with different environments and areas. This indicates that Listeria species and subtypes within these species may show distinct ecological preferences, which suggests (i) that molecular source-tracking approaches can be developed for Listeria and (ii) that detection of some Listeria species may not be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Pantazopoulos P.,Food Laboratory Division | Kwong K.,Food Laboratory Division | Lillycrop W.,Food Laboratory Division | Wong L.,Food Laboratory Division | And 8 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective: Food labels are the number one source for nutrition information for Canadians, but are food labels accurate? This study aims to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the reported trans fatty acid and saturated fatty acid values on food labels in selected foods. Methods: Over 380 samples of cookies, crackers, granola bars, breakfast bars and a variety of frozen foods were collected between 2005 and 2008 in the Greater Toronto Area, Ottawa and Vancouver, as part of Health Canada's Trans Fat Monitoring Program. The food categories chosen were based on earlier studies indicating that they were significant sources of trans fatty acids and the individual samples were chosen based on market share data. The trans fatty acid and saturated fatty acid contents of the samples were determined by gas chromatography and the laboratory results were compared to the values reported in the Nutrition Facts tables. Conclusions: Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference between laboratory and food label values for cookies, crackers, granola bars, breakfast bars and frozen foods for trans fat or saturated fat. The results demonstrate that Canadians can rely on food labels for making informed dietary choices with respect to trans fat and saturated fat content. © Canadian Public Health Association, 2011.


Latorre A.A.,Cornell University | Pradhan A.K.,Cornell University | Pradhan A.K.,University of Maryland University College | Van Kessel J.A.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illness for raw milk consumers due to Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk sold by permitted dealers, and the risk for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by dealers: raw milk purchased directly from bulk tanks, from on-farm stores, and from retail. To assess the effect of mandatory testing of raw milk by regulatory agencies, the number of listeriosis cases per year was compared where no raw milk testing was done, only a screening test to issue a permit was conducted, and routine testing was conducted and milk was recalled if it was L. monocytogenes positive. The median number of listeriosis cases associated with consumption of raw milk from bulk tanks, farm stores, and retail for an intermediate-age population was 6.6 × 10 -7, 3.8 × 10 -5, and 5.1 × 10 -5 cases per year, respectively. In populations with high susceptibility, the estimated median number of cases per year was 2.7 × 10 -7 (perinatal, i.e., pregnant women and their fetuses or newborns) and 1.4 × 10 -6 (elderly) for milk purchased from bulk tanks, 1.5 × 10 -5 (perinatal) and 7.8 × 10 -5 (elderly) for milk from farm stores, and 2.1 × 10 -5 (perinatal) and 1.0 × 10 -4 (elderly) for milk from retail. For raw milk consumed on farms, the median number of listeriosis cases was 1.4 × 10 -7 cases per year. A greater risk of listeriosis was associated with consumption of raw milk obtained from retail and farm stores as compared with milk obtained from bulk tanks. This was likely due to additional time-temperature combination steps in the retail and farm store models, which increased the chances for growth of L. monocytogenes in raw milk. A close relationship between prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk and the values of disease incidence was observed. Hence, a reduction in the number of cases per year in all populations was observed when a raw milk-testing program was in place, especially when routine testing and recalling of milk was conducted. © International Association for Food Protection.


Block E.,University at Albany | Cody R.B.,JEOL United States Inc | Dane A.J.,JEOL United States Inc | Sheridan R.,Food Laboratory Division | And 2 more authors.
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three different instrumental methods have been used to examine the organosulfur chemistry of intact and cut garlic and onions: X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic imaging (XFS), direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-(Ag +)-coordination ion spray mass spectrometry (UPLC-(Ag +)CIS-MS). The first technique has been used to map the location of different chemical forms of sulfur in intact and damaged onion cells, the second technique, to identify the reactive, volatile sulfur compounds formed on cutting the plants, and the third technique, to identify members of families of polysulfides found in the distilled oil of garlic. © 2010 IUPAC.


Hoelzer K.,Cornell University | Sauders B.D.,Food Laboratory Division | Sanchez M.D.,Food Laboratory Division | Sanchez M.D.,Columbia University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

Despite growing concerns about cross-contamination of ready-to-eat foods with Listeria monocytogenes, our knowledge about the ecology and transmission of L. monocytogenes in retail establishments has remained limited. We conducted a crosssectional study to characterize the prevalence, distribution, and subtype diversity of L. monocytogenes in 120 New York State retail deli establishments that were hypothesized to present an increased risk for environmental L. monocytogenes contamination (i.e., small establishments and establishments with a history of failed New York State Agriculture and Markets inspections). Analysis of these data along with previously reported data for 121 predominantly larger retail establishments in New York State identified establishment size, geographic location, and inspection history as significant predictors of L. monocytogenes presence and prevalence. The odds of an establishment being L. monocytogenes positive were approximately twice as high for large establishments, establishments located in New York City, or establishments with poor inspection history (as compared with establishments without these attributes), even though correlation between location and inspection history complicated interpretation of results. Within an establishment, L. monocytogenes was significantly more prevalent on nonfood contact surfaces than on food contact surfaces; prevalence was particularly high for floors and in floor drains, sinks, the dairy case, and milk crates. L. monocytogenes subtype diversity differed between sites, with lineage I isolates significantly associated with nonfood contact surfaces and lineage II isolates significantly associated with food contact surfaces. Isolates belonging to the same ribotype were often found dispersed across multiple sites within an operation. © International Association for Food Protection.


Wang K.,University at Albany | Groom M.,ECOspray Ltd | Sheridan R.,Food Laboratory Division | Zhang S.,University at Albany | Block E.,University at Albany
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry | Year: 2013

Diallyl disulfide reacts within minutes with liquid sulfur at 120°C giving a family of diallyl polysulfanes, All2S n (n=3-22), characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-(Ag+)-coordination ion spray-mass spectrometry (UPLC-(Ag+)CIS-MS). Similarly, garlic oil (GO), bis-(2-methyl-2-propenyl), bis-(2-chloro-2-propenyl), bis-(3-methyl-2- butenyl), and bis-(2-cyclohexen-1-yl) disulfides all give families of polysulfanes with up to 22 sequential sulfur atoms. New members of families of silver chelators with up to 10 sulfur atoms were found in GO using UPLC-(Ag +)CIS-MS. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.© 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


King T.J.,Food Laboratory Division | Sheridan R.S.,Food Laboratory Division | Rice D.H.,Food Laboratory Division
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

Concentrations of 12 metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mo, Ni, Tl, Th, U, V, Hg) were determined in samples of fish and lobster obtained from various stores and markets in New York State. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of mercury based on past research results. A total of 177 fish and lobster samples were initially analyzed using combustion for Hg. The samples were then reanalyzed for several elements using microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection limits were as follows: 20 ng/g for Th, U, and Hg; 100 ng/g for Be, Cd, V, and As; and 300 ng/g for Cr, Mo, Tl, Pb, and Ni. Twenty-two samples had mercury concentrations greater than the 1,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities. The highest Cd concentration (511 ng/g) was found in a lobster. This level is greater than the 500 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities. All levels of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in crustaceans and shellfish. The highest average mercury level (1,190 ng/g) was found in swordfish. The highest average arsenic level (13,400 ng/g) was found in monkfish. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with microwave digestion was demonstrated to be a very effective technique for analyzing fish and lobster for Hg and other toxic metals. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.


Ratnayake W.M.N.,Nutrition Research Division | Swist E.,Nutrition Research Division | Zoka R.,Nutrition Research Division | Gagnon C.,Nutrition Research Division | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: Recent efforts in Canada to reduce industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods include mandated inclusion of TFA content on food labels and recommendations by Health Canada that encourage the food industry to voluntarily limit TFA content in all vegetable oils and soft margarines and in all other prepackaged foods to <2% and <5% of total fat, respectively.Objective: To assess the impact of these efforts, we measured the concentration of TFAs in human breast milk samples.Design: The TFA content in 639 breast milk samples collected in 2009, 2010, and 2011 from breastfeeding mothers in 10 major cities across Canada was analyzed by gas chromatography.Results: The mean (±SD) TFA contents were 2.7 ± 0.9% (n = 153, range: 1.4-7.2%), 2.2 ± 0.7% (n = 309, range: 1.0-6.8%), and 1.9 ± 0.5% (n = 177, range: 0.9-3.4%) of total milk fat for samples collected in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. These values are considerably lower than the value of 7.2 ± 3.0% (range: 0.1-17.2%) found previously for Canadian human milk in 1992. On the basis of a linear correlation between the percentage of TFAs in the diet and human milk fat established by Craig-Schmidt et al, and assuming that 30% of energy of a lactating mother's diet is derived from fat, we estimated from the TFA human milk fat data that TFA intake of Canadian breastfeeding mothers was 0.9%, 0.5%, and 0.3% of total energy in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. These estimated values are lower than the WHO's maximum recommended intake of 1% of total energy for a healthy diet.Conclusions: The results suggest that the trans fat labeling regulations introduced in 2003 and recommendations by Health Canada in 2007 instructing the food manufacturers and restaurants to limit TFAs in foods have resulted in significant reductions in TFAs in the diets of Canadian breastfeeding mothers and their breast milk. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Sheridan R.S.,Food Laboratory Division | Kemnah J.L.,Food Laboratory Division
Journal of Chromatographic Science | Year: 2010

The glycoalkaloid content of pet food containing potatoes is investigated using a liquid-liquid solvent extraction followed by analysis by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Pet food samples are homogenized and extracted with a solution of 50:50 (v/v) acetonitrile-deionized water containing 5% acetic acid. Following vortexing and centrifugation, 3 mL of the supernatant is filtered and diluted in deionized water. The extract is injected onto a reverse phase C18 UPLC column with an initial mobile phase composed of 0.15% acetic acid in water (A) and 0.15% acetic acid in methanol (B) in a ratio of 70:30, respectively. The mobile phase reaches a final concentration of 15% A and 85% B over 10 min, at which point it is returned to the initial conditions. α-Solanine is measured by monitoring transitions m/z = 868.50 → 398.40 and 868.50 → 722.50, while α-chaconine is measure by monitoring transitions m/z = 852.60 → 97.80 and 852.60 → 706.50. Each analyte is measured and combined to determine total glycoalkaloid content (TGA). The results of the analysis of 52 pet food samples indicate both glycoalkaloids are present in all samples and two pet foods were found to contain > 100 μg/g total glycoalkaloid.


PubMed | Food Laboratory Division
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique | Year: 2011

Food labels are the number one source for nutrition information for Canadians, but are food labels accurate? This study aims to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the reported trans fatty acid and saturated fatty acid values on food labels in selected foods.Over 380 samples of cookies, crackers, granola bars, breakfast bars and a variety of frozen foods were collected between 2005 and 2008 in the Greater Toronto Area, Ottawa and Vancouver, as part of Health Canadas Trans Fat Monitoring Program. The food categories chosen were based on earlier studies indicating that they were significant sources of trans fatty acids and the individual samples were chosen based on market share data. The trans fatty acid and saturated fatty acid contents of the samples were determined by gas chromatography and the laboratory results were compared to the values reported in the Nutrition Facts tables.Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference between laboratory and food label values for cookies, crackers, granola bars, breakfast bars and frozen foods for trans fat or saturated fat. The results demonstrate that Canadians can rely on food labels for making informed dietary choices with respect to trans fat and saturated fat content.

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