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Pantazopoulos P.,Food Laboratories Division | Sawyer J.M.,University of Toronto | Turyk M.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Diamond M.,University of Toronto | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2013

Fish are an excellent source of lean protein and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but there is inadequate information on the levels of PUFAs in freshwater fish and specifically Great Lakes fish. Knowledge of PUFAs is necessary to make informed decisions regarding the balance between the benefits of fish consumption due to these factors versus risks of adverse health effects associated with elevated levels of contaminants known to be present in some Great Lakes fish and linked to increased risk of cancer and adverse neurological effects to both infants and adults. Our goal was to determine the lipid profiles in two species of Great Lakes fish, lake trout and whitefish. Total fat and the percentage of total and omega-3 PUFAs were with one exception significantly higher in lake trout than whitefish. Average concentrations of EPA. +. DHA were 11.2 and 9.7. g/100. g lipid in lake trout and whitefish, respectively. The concentrations of EPA. +. DHA in fatty marine fish (22.7, 23.9 and 30.2. g/100. g lipid, respectively) are about double those found in Great Lakes lake trout and whitefish. Nevertheless a 100. g serving of Great Lakes lake trout provides more than 500. mg of EPA. +. DHA, which is the daily intake level recommended by the American Dietetics Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Turyk M.E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Bhavsar S.P.,Environment Canada | Bowerman W.,University of Maryland University College | Boysen E.,Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2012

Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk-benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants-many of which have documented adverse health effects -that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk-benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. Source

Tam J.,Food Laboratories Division | Pantazopoulos P.,Food Laboratories Division | Scott P.M.,Health Canada Sante Canada | Moisey J.,Health Canada Sante Canada | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

Analytical methods are generally developed and optimized for specific commodities. Total Diet Studies, representing typical food products 'as consumed', pose an analytical challenge since every food product is different. In order to address this technical challenge, a selective and sensitive analytical method was developed suitable for the quantitation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Canadian Total Diet Study composites. The method uses an acidified solvent extraction, an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for identification and quantification, and a uniformly stable isotope-labelled OTA (U-[13C20]-OTA) as an internal recovery standard. Results are corrected for this standard. The method is accurate (101% average recovery) and precise (5.5% relative standard deviation (RSD)) based on 17 duplicate analysis of various food products over 2 years. A total of 140 diet composites were analysed for OTA as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study. Samples were collected at retail level from two Canadian cities, Quebec City and Calgary, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results indicate that 73% (102/140) of the samples had detectable levels of OTA, with some of the highest levels of OTA contamination found in the Canadian bread supply. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada. Source

Bansal J.,Food Laboratories Division | Pantazopoulos P.,Food Laboratories Division | Tam J.,Food Laboratories Division | Cavlovic P.,Food Laboratories Division | And 4 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g-1 with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g-1). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g-1. The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44-7.14 ng AFB1 g-1 (year 1) and 1.45-3.48 ng AFB1 g-1 (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g-1 in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g-1 were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1) averaged 4.5 ng g-1 in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ngg-1) from year 1 (n=99); fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) were also present (≥1ngg-1). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g-1 FB1) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB1 results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada. Source

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