Gebze, Turkey
Gebze, Turkey

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Olmez H.,Food Institute | Ekem N.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Pat S.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Oncu N.A.,Food Institute
6th International CIGR Technical Symposium - Towards a Sustainable Food Chain: Food Process, Bioprocessing and Food Quality Management | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of atmospheric plasma for inactivation of E. coli, L. monoctogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The operating conditions for the atmospheric plasma system were 25 kV - 25 kHz. Oxygen was used as the gas supply (0.3 liter/min). Stainless steel coupons were inoculated with each of the pathogen and incubated for 24 h and 72 h to allow biofilm development. Total survivors were enumerated in non-selective media and noninjured cells were enumerated using selective medium after atmospheric plasma treatment for 1 and 5 min. Both for the 24 h and 72 h incubated samples, cell death increased with time for all of the pathogens and the survival curves showed a biphasic course. A two-slope behaviour, with an initial rapid killing rate, followed by a slower killing in the second phase was observed. Within 5 min of atmospheric plasma exposure of the 24 h coupons, E. coli and L. monocytogenes were reduced to below detactable levels, whereas only a 3 log reduction was achieved in S. aureus counts. For the 72 h samples, viable cell count reduced to below detectable levels after 5 min of exposure for E. coli and L. monocytogenes. The inactviation of S .aureus followed a different pattern for 72 h incubated coupons, and no inactivation was observed during 1 minute of atmospheric plasma treatment. One log reduction was achieved in viable count of S. aureus at the end of 5 min exposure to atmospheric plasma.

News Article | November 1, 2016

The non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education and food industry sponsors team up to raise awareness about simple actions to reduce risk of foodborne illness ARLINGTON, VA--(Marketwired - November 01, 2016) - This holiday season millions of Americans will be cooking -- or eating -- a special holiday feast with family and friends. To support these home cooks in getting a safe and healthy meal on the table, the Partnership for Food Safety Education (PFSE) offers "The Story of Your Dinner" consumer education campaign. "With so many home cooks planning to prepare large meals over the holidays, coupled with the fact that one in six people become sick from a foodborne illness each year, this is the best time for reminders about the importance of safe food handling for good health," said Shelley Feist, PFSE executive director. "We're excited to tell 'The Story of Your Dinner' and to showcase the many food safety steps taken -- from farm and processing to retail and, finally, in the home kitchen -- to safely prepare food for our loved ones." At, the campaign stresses the importance of the "Core Four" Fight BAC!® home food safety practices: Useful at-home tips will be shared through the following: Learn about food safety and find educational materials at "The Story of Your Dinner" is a pilot project focused on reaching Southeastern audiences, including people from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Campaign sponsors, who demonstrate a collective commitment to engaging Americans on the importance of food safety, include Cargill, Coca-Cola, the Frozen Food Foundation, Nestlé USA and Publix Super Markets. About the Partnership for Food Safety Education The non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education is the originator of science-based food safety messages and the national leader in developing and disseminating information around the linkage of food safety consumer education with positive health outcomes. Food safety and health educators, and consumers, can download free food safety education information from the Partnership's website at The Partnership is the creator and steward of the popular Fight BAC!® national food safety education campaign. The Partnership is supported by the Food Marketing Institute, the Grocery Manufacturers Association, NSF International, the Produce Marketing Association, and the National Pork Board among other leading industry associations, professional societies in food science, nutrition and health, and consumer groups. Cargill provides food, agriculture, financial and industrial products and services to the world. Together with farmers, customers, governments and communities, the company helps people thrive by applying its insights and 150 years of experience. Cargill has 149,000 employees in 70 countries who are committed to feeding the world in a responsible way, reducing environmental impact and improving the communities where they live and work. For more information, visit The Coca-Cola Company ( : KO) is the world's largest beverage company, refreshing consumers with more than 500 sparkling and still brands and more than 3,800 beverage choices. Led by Coca-Cola, one of the world's most valuable and recognizable brands, our company's portfolio features 20 billion-dollar brands, 18 of which are available in reduced-, low- or no-calorie options. More than 1.9 billion servings of our beverages are enjoyed by consumers in more than 200 countries each day. With an enduring commitment to food and beverage safety, our company is focused on initiatives that ensure our production and distribution processes achieve world class food safety standards and that we continuously work to educate and inform consumers on good consumer food safety practices. For more information, visit Coca-Cola Journey at, follow us on Twitter at, visit our blog, Coca-Cola Unbottled, at or find us on LinkedIn at The Frozen Food Foundation exists to foster scientific research, public awareness and industry education regarding the nutritional, safety and societal attributes of frozen foods for the benefit of the common good. The Frozen Food Foundation is affiliated with the American Frozen Food Institute. To learn more, please visit Named one of "The World's Most Admired Food Companies" in Fortune magazine for nineteen consecutive years, Nestlé provides quality brands that bring flavor to life every day. From nutritious meals with Lean Cuisine® to baking traditions with Nestlé® Toll House®, Nestlé USA makes delicious, convenient, and nutritious food and beverages that make good living possible. That's what "Nestlé. Good Food, Good Life" is all about. Nestlé USA, with 2015 sales of $9.7 billion, is part of Nestlé S.A. in Vevey, Switzerland - the world's largest food company with a commitment to Nutrition, Health & Wellness - with 2015 sales of $92 billion. Nestlé is celebrating its 150th anniversary in 2016, and we're commemorating our legacy by honoring our past and rich history, engaging the present with our customers and consumers and looking forward to the future with our commitment to Creating Shared Value and Nutrition, Health and Wellness. For product news and information, visit or Publix is privately owned and operated by its 182,500 employees, with 2015 sales of $32.4 billion. Currently Publix has 1,120 stores in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, South Carolina and North Carolina. The company has been named one of Fortune's "100 Best Companies to Work for in America" for 19 consecutive years. In addition, Publix's dedication to superior quality and customer service is recognized among the top in the grocery business. For more information, visit the company's website,

News Article | November 24, 2016

Earlier this year, a San Francisco startup debuted the world's first lab-grown meatball, complete with taste test and review. The verdict from the unnamed taster: "it tastes like a meatball." A low bar, but at least this future meat could pass it. This moment didn't receive as much public fanfare as the world's first lab-grown burger back in 2013, and perhaps it's because those interested in this technology are getting antsy for it to progress. Not only could it mean enjoying real meat without the need for animal suffering and slaughter, but studies show it would be much less resource-intensive, and would have a way lower impact on the environment. Industry leaders predict we could be as close as five years away from seeing lab-grown hamburger on the grocery store shelves. It got me wondering: if lab-grown burgers are within sight, could a full, lab-grown turkey on our Thanksgiving table be far behind? I reached out to a number of experts in the industry to answer this question, and their responses varied wildly from lab-grown turkeys as soon as ten years to, well, "never." But the answers expose the reality that this industry still needs to overcome a number of scientific and practical hurdles before we enter into the future of food. "A common misconception that we run into is that it's just a matter of time," said Erin Kim, the communications director for New Harvest, a nonprofit research institute that focuses on lab-grown meat (they prefer the term "cultured meat.") "It was only in 2013 that Mark Post created that first [cultured] beef hamburger," Kim said. "He and a lot of other commentators said things at the time like 'within five to ten years there will be a cultured meat product on the market.' We're now close to the four year mark and the unfortunate truth is that we're not really anywhere near that." Despite Kim's realism—she finally acquiesced to my question and predicted that, perhaps, a full grown turkey "might" be possibly "within a few decades"—New Harvest may actually be closer than any other group to producing a lab-grown turkey. Earlier this year, the nonprofit gave a two-year, $118,000 research grant to Marie Gibbons, a science masters student at North Carolina State University, to investigate growing cultured turkey meat. She's already successfully created the world's first cultured turkey nugget—though it's tiny, so New Harvest has dubbed it a "micronugget:" But a micronugget does not a Thanksgiving turkey make, and even our most attainable short-term goal—lab-grown ground meat of some variety or another—faces some lingering challenges. To grow cultured meat, you start by collecting some stem cell tissue from a living animal—a process that doesn't require you to kill the animal and is more or less painless. Then, the muscle cells are separated and placed in an optimized environment, where they're fed and begin to multiply naturally. These muscle cells also naturally bond together, eventually forming tubes that can be kind of mashed together to make ground meat. The texture is, apparently, spot-on, but the taste is a bit lacking, according to those who have tasted these meats, something researchers are working to improve. Another issue with this process is the "food" given to these cells: it's called fetal bovine serum, a substance found in the blood of unborn calves whose mothers were slaughtered in the dairy industry. It's not only expensive but also kind of defeats the purpose of cultured meat; if we're going to need to keep raising and killing real cows to get the lab-grown meat, why bother? Leaders in the cultured meat industry say they're working on a plant-based alternative to fetal bovine serum, but they're not there yet, which is one of the biggest challenges. There's also the limits of the technology as it stands. Ground meat, and even sandwich-style slices of meat, are both well within the realm of possibility, as proven by the hamburger and meatball that we've already seen. But a chicken breast, steak, or, indeed, a full turkey, those are much more complicated concepts. To grow a cut of meat that thick, you need more than muscle cells. You need bones. You need blood. "Most people seem to concur that about a centimeter thick [piece of meat] would be the most realistic we could expect anytime soon," said Liz Specht, a senior scientist at the Good Food Institute, a nonprofit that supports research into alternative food sources. "To attempt to perfuse, differentiate within, and maintain something in cell culture with the size and complexity of an intact turkey is a whole other ball game from what we're currently working towards." Specht was my most pessimistic prognosticator, stating that she doesn't "imagine that ever being created." There could be a lack of demand to invest that kind of intensive research—other than Thanksgiving and Christmas, whole turkeys don't represent a large part of the meat market. And if funding were to dry up for this kind of research, or public interest never pushed it far enough, there's definitely a chance none of these ideas could ever make it to market. But, a lab-grown Thanksgiving turkey is not off the table, pun intended. An Israel-based company called SuperMeat is currently working on producing lab-grown chicken breasts and Memphis Meats, the creators of that meatball, say a full Thanksgiving bird is "clearly in our roadmap." "These leaps [in technology] might seem like big leaps at this point, but when we talked about going from a regular Nokia cellphone to an iPhone, those were huge leaps and I don't see anything different for cellular agriculture," said Dr. Uma Valeti, the co-founder and CRO of Memphis Meats. Valeti told me his company plans to have its first product on the market—he won't reveal what it will be yet—within about five years. After that, assuming the market continues to grow, he said a turkey would not be far behind. "If there's a big incremental leap where we've got the cost down to a point where we can start putting the next product to the public, I'd say it would be right after that in the five to ten year horizon," Valeti told me. "So, if someone is a freshman in high school now, by the time they finish college they could have a Memphis Meats turkey at their Thanksgiving table." It's always tough to make predictions, especially when it comes to scientific breakthroughs, but the technology in this sector is promising. Kim even suggested that if a whole turkey as we know it weren't possible, it might be possible to sculpt enough lab-grown turkey into a "turkey shape" to satisfy the masses. Either way, if you're someone who is uncomfortable with the impacts of our current food system—be it animal welfare, the environment, or public health—there's reason to be hopeful. We just may be carving into a lab-grown turkey some Thanksgiving in the future, though it might not look exactly as you'd expect.

Risto U.,Food Institute | Zehra H.-M.,Food Institute | Biljana S.-D.,Food Institute | Elizabeta D.-S.,Food Institute | And 2 more authors.
Macedonian Veterinary Review | Year: 2013

Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, which is the primary male sex hormone. These anabolic agents are used to increase the weight gain, to improve the food efficiency, storing proteins and to decrease fatness. However, depending on the use of anabolic agent in animal feed, anabolic residues that may occur in meat and meat products present risks to human health. The aim of this study was the validation of screening ELISA method for determination of methyltestoterone anabolic steroid in fi sh. The validation process was carried out according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The detection limit for methyltestosterone was 140.95 ng/kg and the detection capability was 564.43 ng/kg. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CV) were in the range of 82.4%-97.4% and 1.5%-6.9%, respectively, a working range between 50 to 4050 ng/kg, and the regression equation of the final inhibition curve was: y= -0,1741x + 1,5082, R2 = 0.9927. Because of the good recovery and precision, and satisfactory detection capability, this method is applicable in official control laboratories as a rapid screening method for determination of methyltestosterone in fish.

Arik Kibar E.A.,Food Institute | Gonenc I.,Hacettepe University | Us F.,Hacettepe University
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2014

The effect of addition of six fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, myristic, oleic, palmitoleic, and myristoleic acid) on the gelatinization, glass transition, and retrogradation properties of corn starch as well as their complexing abilities with amylose were determined. Differential scanning calorimeter studies reflected that addition of fatty acids caused a 73-89% decrease in the gelatinization enthalpy compared to that of the native starch. Besides amylose-lipid formation, exotherm was determined at the same temperature range with the gelatinization endotherm. As a result, it was suggested that fatty acids complexed with amylose during gelatinization. Fatty acid addition significantly increased the glass transition temperature of starch gel. This was attributed to two reasons: the first is due to the physical cross-linking action of amylose-lipid complexes in starch-water system; the second may be due to the effect of uncomplexed fatty acids on water distribution in the gel structure as a result of their amphiphilic character. Thermal properties of amylose-lipid complexes were compared in order to determine the effect of fatty acid properties. It was found that the shorter chain length and unsaturation favored the complex formation but the complexes formed by longer and saturated fatty acids were more heat stable. Addition of fatty acids resulted in 73-90% and 47-71% reduction in the retrogradation enthalpy compared to native starch gels at 5°C and 21°C, respectively. The reduction in the retrogradation enthalpy was inversely related to the amylose-lipid complexing abilities of the fatty acids and it might be explained by the hindrance effect of uncomplexed fatty acids to the water distribution in the starch gel matrix. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Quero G.M.,National Research Council Italy | Fusco V.,National Research Council Italy | Cocconcelli P.S.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Owczarek L.,Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology IAFB | And 6 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Matsoni, a traditional Georgian fermented milk, has variable quality and stability besides a short shelf-life (72-120h at 6°C) due to inadequate production and storage conditions. To individuate its typical traits as well as select and exploit autochthonous starter cultures to standardize its overall quality without altering its typicality, we carried out a thorough physico-chemical, sensorial and microbial characterization of traditional Matsoni. A polyphasic approach, including a culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) and two PCR culture-dependent methods, was employed to study the ecology of Matsoni. Overall, the microbial ecosystem of Matsoni resulted largely dominated by Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus and Lactobacillus (Lb.) delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. High loads of other lactic acid bacteria species, including Lb. helveticus, Lb. paracasei and Leuconostoc (Leuc.) lactis were found to occur as well. A selected autochthonous multiple strain culture (AMSC) composed of one Lb. bulgaricus, one Lb. paracasei and one S. thermophilus strain, applied for the pilot-scale production of traditional Matsoni, resulted the best in terms of enhanced shelf-life (one month), sensorial and nutritional quality without altering its overall typical quality. This AMSC is at disposal of SMEs who need to exploit and standardize the overall quality of this traditional fermented milk, preserving its typicality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Arik Kibar E.A.,Food Institute | Us F.,Hacettepe University
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2014

The object of this study was to investigate the physicochemical interactions between starch and cellulose ethers when they were blended to obtain biodegradable films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the hydrogen bond formation between polymer chains and/or plasticizer molecules and hence good compatibility of the film constituents. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that cellulose ethers could be used to increase the strength and stiffness of the starch films due to their improvement on crystallinity. Simultaneous evaluation of XRD and optical microscopy results revealed that methylcellulose films had three-dimensional ordered crystalline structure and starch and carboxymethylcellulose films showed randomly distributed small crystallites and amorphous regions. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | University of Kuala Lumpur, University Putra Malaysia and Food Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta scientiarum polonorum. Technologia alimentaria | Year: 2017

Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18-33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extraction parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel).Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA), Pisang Berangan (PB), and Pisang Mas (PM) were investigated. The best extraction parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0-100% v/v), extraction time (1-5 hr), and extraction temperature (25-60C) for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC) was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA) of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and -carotene bleaching (BCB) assays at optimum extraction conditions.Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and -carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best extraction conditions used have given the highest TPC and AAs.By-products of banana (peel) can be considered as a potential source of antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industry.

PubMed | University of Kuala Lumpur and Food Institute
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Acta scientiarum polonorum. Technologia alimentaria | Year: 2017

Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants.In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm) in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and -tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration.After 24 days storage at 65C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and -tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions.Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

Alasalvar C.,Food Institute | Bolling B.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

The levels of phytochemicals (total phenols, proanthocyanidins, gallic acid + gallotannins, ellagic acid + ellagitannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes and phytates), fat-soluble bioactives (lipid, tocols, phytosterols, sphingolipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls and alkyl phenols) as well as natural antioxidants (nutrient and non-nutrient) present in commonly consumed twelve nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, heartnut, macadamia, peanut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio and walnut) are compared and reported. Recent studies adding new evidence for the health benefits of nuts are also discussed. Research findings from over 112 references, many of which have been published within last 10 years, have been compiled and reported. Copyright © The Authors 2015.

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