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Gebze, Turkey

Alasalvar C.,Food Institute | Bolling B.W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

The levels of phytochemicals (total phenols, proanthocyanidins, gallic acid + gallotannins, ellagic acid + ellagitannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes and phytates), fat-soluble bioactives (lipid, tocols, phytosterols, sphingolipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls and alkyl phenols) as well as natural antioxidants (nutrient and non-nutrient) present in commonly consumed twelve nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, chestnut, hazelnut, heartnut, macadamia, peanut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio and walnut) are compared and reported. Recent studies adding new evidence for the health benefits of nuts are also discussed. Research findings from over 112 references, many of which have been published within last 10 years, have been compiled and reported. Copyright © The Authors 2015. Source

Arik Kibar E.A.,Food Institute | Gonenc I.,Hacettepe University | Us F.,Hacettepe University
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2014

The effect of addition of six fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, myristic, oleic, palmitoleic, and myristoleic acid) on the gelatinization, glass transition, and retrogradation properties of corn starch as well as their complexing abilities with amylose were determined. Differential scanning calorimeter studies reflected that addition of fatty acids caused a 73-89% decrease in the gelatinization enthalpy compared to that of the native starch. Besides amylose-lipid formation, exotherm was determined at the same temperature range with the gelatinization endotherm. As a result, it was suggested that fatty acids complexed with amylose during gelatinization. Fatty acid addition significantly increased the glass transition temperature of starch gel. This was attributed to two reasons: the first is due to the physical cross-linking action of amylose-lipid complexes in starch-water system; the second may be due to the effect of uncomplexed fatty acids on water distribution in the gel structure as a result of their amphiphilic character. Thermal properties of amylose-lipid complexes were compared in order to determine the effect of fatty acid properties. It was found that the shorter chain length and unsaturation favored the complex formation but the complexes formed by longer and saturated fatty acids were more heat stable. Addition of fatty acids resulted in 73-90% and 47-71% reduction in the retrogradation enthalpy compared to native starch gels at 5°C and 21°C, respectively. The reduction in the retrogradation enthalpy was inversely related to the amylose-lipid complexing abilities of the fatty acids and it might be explained by the hindrance effect of uncomplexed fatty acids to the water distribution in the starch gel matrix. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Arik Kibar E.A.,Food Institute | Us F.,Hacettepe University
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2014

The object of this study was to investigate the physicochemical interactions between starch and cellulose ethers when they were blended to obtain biodegradable films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the hydrogen bond formation between polymer chains and/or plasticizer molecules and hence good compatibility of the film constituents. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that cellulose ethers could be used to increase the strength and stiffness of the starch films due to their improvement on crystallinity. Simultaneous evaluation of XRD and optical microscopy results revealed that methylcellulose films had three-dimensional ordered crystalline structure and starch and carboxymethylcellulose films showed randomly distributed small crystallites and amorphous regions. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Quero G.M.,National Research Council Italy | Fusco V.,National Research Council Italy | Cocconcelli P.S.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Owczarek L.,Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology IAFB | And 6 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Matsoni, a traditional Georgian fermented milk, has variable quality and stability besides a short shelf-life (72-120h at 6°C) due to inadequate production and storage conditions. To individuate its typical traits as well as select and exploit autochthonous starter cultures to standardize its overall quality without altering its typicality, we carried out a thorough physico-chemical, sensorial and microbial characterization of traditional Matsoni. A polyphasic approach, including a culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) and two PCR culture-dependent methods, was employed to study the ecology of Matsoni. Overall, the microbial ecosystem of Matsoni resulted largely dominated by Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus and Lactobacillus (Lb.) delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. High loads of other lactic acid bacteria species, including Lb. helveticus, Lb. paracasei and Leuconostoc (Leuc.) lactis were found to occur as well. A selected autochthonous multiple strain culture (AMSC) composed of one Lb. bulgaricus, one Lb. paracasei and one S. thermophilus strain, applied for the pilot-scale production of traditional Matsoni, resulted the best in terms of enhanced shelf-life (one month), sensorial and nutritional quality without altering its overall typical quality. This AMSC is at disposal of SMEs who need to exploit and standardize the overall quality of this traditional fermented milk, preserving its typicality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Borcakli M.,Food Institute | Lucas J.,University of Liverpool | Caputo L.,National Research Council Italy | Ozturk T.,Food Institute | And 5 more authors.
Italian Journal of Food Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to check the efficacy of an annular ultraviolet reactor for stabilizing the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the main components of the microbiota of three raw fermented beverages, Boza, Ayran and Matsoni during cold storage. The ultraviolet (UV) dose of 260 mJ cm-2 caused a reduction of 2.6 and 1 log CFU mL-1 in the LAB loads of Boza and Ayran samples, respectively, whereas multiple UV treatments were required for Matsoni; they caused the decrease of 3 log CFU mL-1 in LAB counts. Twenty-two bacterial strains, belonging to 11 species, were identified in the natural microflora of the three beverages before and after the UV treatments. Only a minimal post-acidification process was registered up to day 30 in all the three beverages. This ultraviolet device is at disposal of beverage manufacturers, who could apply it for producing microbially-stable drinks with an extended shelf-life. Source

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