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Van Der Maarel M.J.E.C.,Food Innovation Center | Van Der Maarel M.J.E.C.,University of Groningen | Leemhuis H.,University of Groningen
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated glucose syrups as substrate for the fermentative production of bioethanol and basic chemicals. Over the last two decades α-glucanotransferases (EC 2.4.1.xx), such as branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18) and 4-α-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25), have received considerable attention. These enzymes do not hydrolyze the starch as amylases do. Instead, α-glucanotransferases remodel parts of the amylose and amylopectin molecules by cleaving and reforming α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic bond. Here we review the properties of α-glucanotransferases and discuss the emerging use of these enzymes in the generation of novel starch derivatives. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Eating a Mediterranean diet could decrease the chances an overweight person will experience regular pain, new research suggests. A well-established connection between body weight and chronic pain might be explained by inflammation in the body, and the study points to anti-inflammatory foods including fish, nuts and beans as a key to preventing or reducing that pain, said lead researcher Charles Emery, a professor of psychology at The Ohio State University. “We found that a healthy diet explained the link between weight and pain and specifically that seafood and plant proteins such as peas and nuts and beans were key,” said Emery, who is a member of Ohio State’s Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research. “It appears to be telling us that it’s not just the quantity of the food you eat that plays a role in pain for heavier individuals, but the quality of food as well.” The researchers developed a model to help them determine whether components of an anti-inflammatory diet high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains and healthy fats, played a role in the likelihood a person’s weight would contribute to pain. And they found a clear pattern. Eating more fish and plant-based proteins such as nuts and beans was linked with less pain, regardless of body weight. The study also upheld previous research showing that people who are overweight or obese are more likely to experience pain. It included 98 men and women 20 to 78 years old and appears this month in the journal Pain. “Obesity and pain are significant public health problems. This was an attempt to take a very detailed snapshot of how they might be related,” Emery said. “We were interested in the possibility of an inflammatory mechanism explaining the connection because we know there’s a high degree of inflammation associated with obesity and with pain.” The mediation model he and his team developed took into account weight, an analysis of self-reported dietary patterns (the Health Eating Index, a measure of diet quality based on U.S. dietary guidelines) and results of a two-question pain survey. Researchers spent three hours with each participant in his or her home. The researchers accounted for other factors that could influence their results, including age, depression, analgesic medication use and joint pain. And they tested the model using three different measures of weight – body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. In all three cases, they found evidence that anti-inflammatory proteins may explain the link between increased weight and pain. “For people with obesity, it’s kind of like a cloud hanging over them because they experience high levels of pain and inflammation,” Emery said. The data came from a larger initial study that examined the home environment’s role on psychological and social functioning of obese people and people at a healthy weight. Potential weaknesses of the study include the lack of blood samples that would allow the researchers to look at inflammatory markers and the brevity of the pain measurement. The pain evaluation provides an indicator of pain experienced during the previous month, but does not account for chronic pain of a longer duration. Emery said his next step is to examine body fat and pain using biomarkers associated with inflammation. “I’m interested in how our work can contribute to effective treatments for overweight and obese individuals,” he said. Emery’s collaborators, all from Ohio State, were KayLoni Olson, Andrew Bodine, Victoria Lee and Diane Habash. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences and Ohio State’s Food Innovation Center supported the study.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Those who eat more fish, plant proteins less likely to suffer, study finds COLUMBUS, Ohio - Eating a Mediterranean diet could decrease the chances an overweight person will experience regular pain, new research suggests. A well-established connection between body weight and chronic pain might be explained by inflammation in the body, and the study points to anti-inflammatory foods including fish, nuts and beans as a key to preventing or reducing that pain, said lead researcher Charles Emery, a professor of psychology at The Ohio State University. "We found that a healthy diet explained the link between weight and pain and specifically that seafood and plant proteins such as peas and nuts and beans were key," said Emery, who is a member of Ohio State's Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research. "It appears to be telling us that it's not just the quantity of the food you eat that plays a role in pain for heavier individuals, but the quality of food as well." The researchers developed a model to help them determine whether components of an anti-inflammatory diet high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains and healthy fats, played a role in the likelihood a person's weight would contribute to pain. And they found a clear pattern. Eating more fish and plant-based proteins such as nuts and beans was linked with less pain, regardless of body weight. The study also upheld previous research showing that people who are overweight or obese are more likely to experience pain. It included 98 men and women 20 to 78 years old and appears this month in the journal Pain. "Obesity and pain are significant public health problems. This was an attempt to take a very detailed snapshot of how they might be related," Emery said. "We were interested in the possibility of an inflammatory mechanism explaining the connection because we know there's a high degree of inflammation associated with obesity and with pain." The mediation model he and his team developed took into account weight, an analysis of self-reported dietary patterns (the Health Eating Index, a measure of diet quality based on U.S. dietary guidelines) and results of a two-question pain survey. Researchers spent three hours with each participant in his or her home. The researchers accounted for other factors that could influence their results, including age, depression, analgesic medication use and joint pain. And they tested the model using three different measures of weight - body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. In all three cases, they found evidence that anti-inflammatory proteins may explain the link between increased weight and pain. "For people with obesity, it's kind of like a cloud hanging over them because they experience high levels of pain and inflammation," Emery said. The data came from a larger initial study that examined the home environment's role on psychological and social functioning of obese people and people at a healthy weight. Potential weaknesses of the study include the lack of blood samples that would allow the researchers to look at inflammatory markers and the brevity of the pain measurement. The pain evaluation provides an indicator of pain experienced during the previous month, but does not account for chronic pain of a longer duration. Emery said his next step is to examine body fat and pain using biomarkers associated with inflammation. "I'm interested in how our work can contribute to effective treatments for overweight and obese individuals," he said. Emery's collaborators, all from Ohio State, were KayLoni Olson, Andrew Bodine, Victoria Lee and Diane Habash. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences and Ohio State's Food Innovation Center supported the study.


News Article | January 11, 2016
Site: www.fastcompany.com

At Imperial Restaurant in Portland, Oregon, diners are getting a taste of the latest superfood to hit the market: dulse, a crimson seaweed that’s packed with nutrients and, when fried, offers up an umami flavor similar to bacon. "It disappears in your mouth," says chef and owner Vitaly Paley. Wild dulse, which is sold as a specialty item at places like Whole Foods, grows primarily on the shores of Ireland and the north Atlantic coast and is notoriously difficult to harvest: It’s plucked by hand and can deteriorate quickly. But the dulse that Paley sprinkles atop his tuna poke doesn’t come from the ocean—it’s farmed in 6,000-liter tanks at Oregon State University’s Hatfield Marine Science Center. Marine biologist Chris Langdon began cultivating this strain of dulse as a food for abalone in the mid-1990s, but it wasn’t until his colleague Chuck Toombs, from the OSU College of Business, toured the lab in 2014 that Langdon considered serving it to humans. With wild dulse selling for up to $90 a pound and sales of seaweed snacks in the U.S. accounting for roughly $500 million in 2014, Toombs sensed that Langdon might be sitting on a gold mine. Never before has dulse been cultivated outside of the ocean on a commercial scale. Plus, Langdon’s strain grows fast—really fast. "Under optimum conditions, it will double or triple its weight each week," he says. While OSU’s Food Innovation Center tests commercial preparations for dulse, Langdon’s strain is already being served at select restaurants in Oregon, and Northwest grocery chain New Seasons recently debuted a soy-and-ginger dulse dressing. This year, Toombs plans to hit the market with snacks like dulse crackers and a smoked peanut popcorn brittle through his new business, DulsEnergy. Though Langdon and his colleagues are ramping up production, demand is still outpacing supply. "Our lawyers said, ‘We’ve never heard of anything like this. You guys have a market and you don’t have a product!’ " says Toombs. For the producers, at least, it’s a good problem to have. A version of this article appeared in the February 2016 issue of Fast Company magazine.


Zhao J.,Wageningen University | Zhao J.,Jiangnan University | Schols H.A.,Wageningen University | Chen Z.,Food Innovation Center | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate and/or hydroxypropylated with propylene oxide. The native and modified starches were gelatinized and hydrolysed by pullulanase, β-amylase, α-amylase and a combination of pullulanase, α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The hydrolysates were analysed by HPSEC, HPAEC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Cross-linking had only a slight effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis, where hydroxypropylation evidently limited the enzymatic hydrolysis. The results obtained suggest that the hydroxypropyl substituents are not distributed regularly over the starch chains. Although the average substitution was around 2 hydroxypropyl groups per 10 glucose units, in the enzyme digests of hydroxypropylated starches, oligomer fragments of 10-15 glucose units, carrying 5-8 hydroxypropyl groups, were identified. It is hypothesised that higher levels of substituents are present in the amorphous regions and periphery of clusters of starch granules. This is the first time that the location of hydroxypropyl groups within sweet potato starch has been examined in this detail. Despite significant differences in granule architecture between starches from potato and sweet potato, similar patterns of hydroxypropylation have been found. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhao J.,Wageningen University | Zhao J.,Jiangnan University | Chen Z.,Food Innovation Center | Jin Z.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Sweet potato starch was modified by cross-linking, hydroxypropylation, and combined cross-linking and hydroxypropylation, and the starches were subsequently sieved to obtain differently sized granule fractions. The effects of granule size of native and modified sweet potato starch fractions and all fractions were investigated with respect to their physicochemical properties. The large-size granule fraction (27-30 μm) showed a 16-20% higher chemical phosphorylation and a 4-7% higher hydroxypropylation than the small-size granule fraction (14-16 μm). The large-size granule fractions of native and modified sweet potato starches showed lower transition temperatures (0.7-3.1 °C for peak temperature of gelatinization) and lower enthalpy changes (0.6-1.9 J/g) during gelatinization than the small-size granule fractions, making the sweet potato starch different from cereal starches. The large-size granule fraction of native starch showed a higher paste viscosity (78-244 cP) than the corresponding small-size granule fraction. In addition, cross-linking and hydroxypropylation affected the paste viscosity of the large-size granule fraction significantly more than that of the small-size granule fraction when compared to the corresponding parental starch fractions. The large-size granule fraction of native and dual-modified starches showed a lower syneresis after freeze-thaw treatments than the small-size granule fractions. The difference in swelling power between large- and small-size granule fractions was not significant. In general, the large-size granule fraction of sweet potato starch was more susceptible for cross-linking and hydroxypropylation and the physicochemical properties were changed to a higher extent compared to the corresponding small-size granule fraction. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Flatev, a startup company that plans to revolutionize the way consumers prepare a wide variety of flatbreads will be establishing its first worldwide manufacturing operation at the Rutgers Food Innovation Center business incubator facility in Bridgeton, NJ. The company, headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, met with officials from Choose New Jersey, Inc., the Rutgers Food Innovation Center, and other business leaders today, and demonstrated their Flatev Artisan Baking System. The system gives consumers the ability to produce freshly baked, tasty, and nutritious artisanal flatbreads with the push of a button. The Flatev Artisan Baking System is a table-top household appliance that makes fresh tortillas, pita, roti, and other flatbreads, as well as cookies, with a single-serve dough portion, that is as consistent and easy-to-use as a single-serve coffee maker. The Flatev dough single-serves will be produced at the Rutgers Food Innovation Center during the fall of 2017. The appliance and single-serves will be sold to a limited number of service hotels, offices, and to consumers shortly thereafter. “The business began as a result of my interest in producing authentic, healthy tortillas, just like my mother made for me when I was a child growing up in Mexico,” said Carlos Ruiz, Founder, CEO and Chairman of Flatev. “Our Artisan Baking System produces organic, all natural tortillas and flatbreads, which are non-GMO and contain no artificial preservatives or additives. The hot just-baked tortillas, which are ready in less than two minutes, are scrumptious, fresh, and carry an amazing aroma.” Flatev raised almost $5 million in its initial round of funding, which has enabled the company to complete all of its appliance engineering and dough product development, finalize its prototypes, gain patents on its process, and build a team in both Switzerland and the US. “We are very pleased that Flatev has chosen to establish their first global operation within our FDA and USDA inspected facility in Bridgeton, New Jersey,” said Lou Cooperhouse, Executive Director of the Rutgers Food Innovation Center. “There is a clear consumer trend in conveniently packaged products that are freshly prepared at home, and away from home, and Flatev is pioneering this trend in a category where freshness is extremely important. The global kitchen appliance market also is expected to grow significantly in the years ahead, and we believe that Flatev’s growth can be quite substantial in both retail and foodservice markets.” Choose New Jersey, a private non-profit organization charged with encouraging and nurturing economic growth throughout the State, provided assistance to Flatev to ensure a smooth move to New Jersey, including an introduction to the resources available to food companies at the Rutgers Food Innovation Center. “We welcome Flatev to New Jersey’s growing food industry,” said Michele Brown, President and CEO of Choose New Jersey, Inc. “New Jersey has powerful assets, including the resources at the Food Innovation Center, to help pioneering start-up companies like Flatev flourish. Their first-to-market baking system will be a welcome addition to the Garden State’s growing list of innovative food products.” Choose New Jersey, Inc. is a privately funded 501(c)(3) corporation charged with encouraging and nurturing economic growth throughout New Jersey with a focus on its urban centers. Through marketing, business attraction and lead generation activities, Choose New Jersey markets New Jersey as a premiere business location to both domestic and international businesses. Choose New Jersey is a member of the Partnership for Action (PFA), which is led by Lt. Governor Kim Guadagno and also includes the New Jersey Business Action Center, the New Jersey Economic Development Authority and the Office of the Secretary of Higher Education. For more information, visit http://www.choosenj.com. Rutgers Food Innovation Center (FIC) is a globally recognized food business incubation and economic development accelerator program of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (NJAES) at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. The Center provides extensive programs in training and workforce development; customized and comprehensive business and technical mentoring services; and USDA- and FDA-inspected facilities that enable design, development, analysis, commercialization and manufacture of value-added food products for sale to retail and foodservice markets. The FIC has been named as the “Incubator of the Year” by the International Business Innovation Association (InBIA) and recognized as an “Agricultural Innovation Center Demonstration Program” by the USDA. In addition, the FIC has been designated as a Soft Landings site by InBIA, due to its focus on international business attraction, and is currently the only food-based incubation program in the world with this designation. For more information about the Rutgers Food Innovation Center, visit http://foodinnovation.rutgers.edu/. More about Flatev can be found on its website at: http://www.flatev.com Photo Caption: (From L to R) Lou Cooperhouse, Executive Director, Rutgers Food Innovation Center and Michele Brown, President and CEO, Choose New Jersey, Inc. welcome Scott Cross, Chief Business Development Officer, Jonas Mueller, Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer and Carlos Ruiz, Co-Founder, Chairman and CEO of Flatev to New Jersey.


Huang J.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Chen Z.,Food Innovation Center | Xu Y.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Li H.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Abstract To understand the contribution of granule inner portion to the pasting property of starch, waxy potato starch and two normal potato starches and their acetylated starch samples were subjected to chemical surface gelatinization by 3.8 mol/L CaCl2 to obtain remaining granules. Native and acetylated, original and remaining granules of waxy potato starch had similar rapid visco analyzer (RVA) pasting profiles, while those of two normal potato starches behaved obviously different from each other. All remaining granules had lower peak viscosity than the corresponding original granules. Contribution of waxy potato starch granule's inner portion to the peak viscosity was significant more than those of normal potato starches. The shell structure appearing on the remaining granule surface for waxy potato starch was smoother and thinner than that for normal potato starches as observed by scanning electron microscopy, indicating a more regular structure of shell and a more ordered packing of shell for waxy potato starch granules. The blocklet size of waxy potato starch was smaller and more uniform than those of normal potato starches as shown by atomic force microscopy images of original and remaining granules. In general, our results provided the evidence for the spatial structure diversity between waxy and normal potato starch granules: outer layer and inner portion of waxy potato starch granule had similar structure, while outer layer had notably different structure from inner portion for normal potato starch granule. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ratcliffe M.M.,Food Innovation Center | Ratcliffe M.M.,National Farm to School Networks Research Workgroup
Childhood Obesity | Year: 2012

Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students' access to healthier foods, increase students' knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others' objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals' behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the Polytheoretical Model for Food and Garden-based Education in School Settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Huang J.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Zhang P.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Chen Z.,Food Innovation Center | Li H.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

One acetylated waxy potato starch and three acetylated normal potato starch samples were treated with aqueous calcium chloride (4 mol/L) for surface gelatinization. The remaining granules after removal of gelatinized starch were investigated on size distribution and level of acetylation. Their crystal structure, thermal property and morphological change were studied with X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Greater proportions of the acetyl groups were present at the periphery than at the core of the granule. Remaining granules obtained after higher degree of gelatinization showed greater relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. Morphology of gelatinized starch and remaining granules differed for acetylated waxy and normal potato starch samples. The results suggest that structural divergence exists not only between acetylated waxy and normal potato starches, but also within one granule. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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