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PubMed | Udayana University, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Food Industry Research &Development Institute, Khon Kaen University and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Asia differs substantially among and within its regions populated by diverse ethnic groups, which maintain their own respective cultures and dietary habits. To address the diversity in their gut microbiota, we characterized the bacterial community in fecal samples obtained from 303 school-age children living in urban or rural regions in five countries spanning temperate and tropical areas of Asia. The microbiota profiled for the 303 subjects were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, each driven by Prevotella (P-type) or Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides (BB-type), respectively. Majority in China, Japan and Taiwan harbored BB-type, whereas those from Indonesia and Khon Kaen in Thailand mainly harbored P-type. The P-type microbiota was characterized by a more conserved bacterial community sharing a greater number of type-specific phylotypes. Predictive metagenomics suggests higher and lower activity of carbohydrate digestion and bile acid biosynthesis, respectively, in P-type subjects, reflecting their high intake of diets rich in resistant starch. Random-forest analysis classified their fecal species community as mirroring location of resident country, suggesting eco-geographical factors shaping gut microbiota. In particular, children living in Japan harbored a less diversified microbiota with high abundance of Bifidobacterium and less number of potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may reflect their living environment and unique diet.


Chao P.-M.,China Medical University at Taichung | Kuo Y.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Kuo Y.-H.,National Taiwan University | Kuo Y.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is one approach used for treating metabolic syndrome. Using partially purified ACC to screen herbs commonly used in Taiwanese folk medicine, we previously showed that an ethanol extract of Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (EP) had potent ACC inhibitory activity and partially alleviated metabolic disorders induced by a high fat diet. Since ACC plays a crucial role in de novo lipogenesis, the favorable effects of EP on metabolism were tested under lipogenic conditions in the present study. On incubating high glucose (30 mM)-stimulated HepG2 cells with EP (72.5 or 145 μg/mL), ACC and fatty acid synthase activity, triacylglycerol content, and microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein mRNA levels were all significantly reduced (P < 0.05, vs vehicle). When EP was given at low, medium, and high dosages (94, 188, and 470 mg/kg) to sucrose water-treated Wistar rats for four weeks, alleviation of symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension, accompanied by hepatic ACC inactivation, was seen in the low dosage group. Four compounds (emodin, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin) isolated from EP were identified as ACC inhibitors. These results confirm that P. hypoleucum Ohwi, acting partly through ACC inhibition, has favorable effects in alleviating metabolic disturbances occurring under lipogenic conditions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Chen G.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang C.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chang M.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen C.-H.,Food Industry Research Development Institute | And 3 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2011

To establish animal models with diet-induced metabolic disorders similar to human metabolic syndrome, 2 unhealthy dietary habits featuring a high fat content and a sucrose-containing beverage intake, alone or in combination, were tested on Wistar rats and C57BL/6J mice. The 2 dietary habits were, respectively, simulated by feeding a high-fat diet (regimen A) or additionally providing 30% sucrose (wt/vol) in the drinking water (regimen B). Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, 4 groups of animals were fed chow diet plus plain water (group C), high-fat diet (30% [wt/wt] fat) plus plain water (group A), chow diet plus sucrose in drinking water (group B), and high-fat diet plus sucrose in drinking water (group AB) for 26 weeks. In Wistar rats, regimen B caused a significant increase in visceral fat; serum levels of lipids, glucose, insulin, and uric acid; insulin resistance; and blood pressure, whereas regimen A only caused a significant increase in visceral fat and serum insulin levels (P < .05). In contrast, regimen A induced a full array of metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice; but regimen B only caused slight obesity and hyperlipidemia. In both Wistar rats and C57BL/6J mice, there were no additive effects of the 2 regimens, indicated by significant interactions between regimens A and B on the metabolic indexes measured. These results show that, in terms of inducing metabolic syndrome, Wistar rats are more responsive to sucrose water regimen, whereas C57BL/6J mice are more responsive to the high-fat diet regimen. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Wang R.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Lin P.-Y.,Joint Center for Instruments and Researches | Huang S.-T.,Food Industry Research Development Institute | Chiu C.-H.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Bacteria and fungi can secrete extracellular enzymes to convert macromolecules into smaller units. Hyperproduction of extracellular enzymes is often associated with alterations in cell wall structure in fungi. Recently, we identified that Saccharomyces cerevisiae kre6Δ mutants can efficiently convert mogroside V into mogroside III E, which has antidiabetic properties. However, the underlying efficient bioconversion mechanism is unclear. In the present study, the mogroside (MG) bioconversion properties of several cell wall structure defective mutants were analyzed. We also compared the cell walls of these mutants by transmission electron microscopy, a zymolyase sensitivity test, and a mannoprotein release assay. We found zymolyase-sensitive mutants (including kre1Δ, las21Δ, gas1Δ, and kre6Δ), with defects in mannoprotein deposition, exhibit efficient MG conversion and excessive leakage of Exg1; such defects were not observed in wild-type cells, or mutants with abnormal levels of glucans in the cell wall. Thus, yeast mutants defective in mannoprotein deposition may be employed to convert glycosylated bioactive compounds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Food Industry Research & Development Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of food sciences and nutrition | Year: 2014

Sesaminol triglucoside is a major lignin in sesame meal and has a methylenedioxyphenyl group and multiple functions in vivo. As a tetrahydrofurofuran type lignan, sesaminol triglucoside is metabolized to mammalian lignans. This investigation studies the effect of sesaminol triglucoside and its tetrahydrofuranoid metabolites (sesaminol, 2-episesaminol, hydroxymethyl sesaminol-tetrahydrofuran, enterolactone, and enterodiol) on gene expression in primary rat hepatocytes using a DNA microarray. Sesame lignans significantly affected the expression of xenobiotic-induced transcripts of cytochrome P450, solute carrier (SLC), and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Changes in gene expression were generally greater in response to metabolites with methylenedioxyphenyl moieties (sesaminol triglucoside, sesaminol, and 2-episesaminol) than to the tetrahydrofuranoid metabolites (hydroxymethyl sesaminol-tetrahydrofuran, enterolactone, and enterodiol). Tetrahydrofuran lignans, such as sesaminol triglucoside, sesamin, hydroxymethyl sesaminol-tetrahydrofuran, and sesaminol changed the expression of ABC transporters.


PubMed | Joint Center for Instruments and Researches, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology and Food Industry Research Development Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

Bacteria and fungi can secrete extracellular enzymes to convert macromolecules into smaller units. Hyperproduction of extracellular enzymes is often associated with alterations in cell wall structure in fungi. Recently, we identified that Saccharomyces cerevisiae kre6 mutants can efficiently convert mogroside V into mogroside III E, which has antidiabetic properties. However, the underlying efficient bioconversion mechanism is unclear. In the present study, the mogroside (MG) bioconversion properties of several cell wall structure defective mutants were analyzed. We also compared the cell walls of these mutants by transmission electron microscopy, a zymolyase sensitivity test, and a mannoprotein release assay. We found zymolyase-sensitive mutants (including kre1, las21, gas1, and kre6), with defects in mannoprotein deposition, exhibit efficient MG conversion and excessive leakage of Exg1; such defects were not observed in wild-type cells, or mutants with abnormal levels of glucans in the cell wall. Thus, yeast mutants defective in mannoprotein deposition may be employed to convert glycosylated bioactive compounds.


An extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. ex Murray var. hypoleucum (Ohwi) or of Polygonum hypoleucum (Ohwi) for improving metabolic syndrome is prepared by the following method: (a) providing fresh or dry Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. ex Murray var. hypoleucum (Ohwi) or Polygonum hypoleucum (Ohwi) in partial or whole plant ; (b) extracting the partial or whole plant by a solvent to obtain a crude extract; (c) condensing and drying the crude extract to obtain an extract product; and (d) collecting the extract product. The present invention also relates to a pharmaceutical and a food composition having the above extract for improving the metabolic syndromes. The extract of the present invention can be easily prepared and is demonstrated to modulate the levels of both blood glucose and blood lipid, to inhibit the activities of glycolytic enzymes and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and to stimulate acyl-CoA oxidase. The extract of the present invention is capable of improving metabolic syndromes.


PubMed | Food Industry Research & Development Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2010

Sesaminol triglucoside (STG) is the main sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) lignan. Like many other plant lignans, STG can be converted to the mammalian lignans by intestinal microbiota. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the distribution of STG metabolite in rats, and the effects of STG and its metabolite on in vitro inflammation and estrogenic activities. STG was metabolized via intestinal microflora to a biologically active catechol moiety which would then be absorbed into the body in rats. After oral administration of STG to Sprague-Dawley rats, the concentrations of major STG metabolites in rectum, cecum, colon, and small intestines are higher than those in liver, lung, kidney, and heart. Its concentration in brain is low but detectable. The present study demonstrates that STG may be metabolized to form the catechol metabolites first by intestinal microflora and then incorporated via intestine absorption into the cardiovascular system and transported to other tissues. Results showed that the catechol metabolites were found to be able to penetrate the tail end of intestines (large intestine) and go through urinary excretion. STG metabolites significantly reduced the production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in RAW264.7 murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The estrogenic activities of STG metabolites were also established by ligand-dependent transcriptional activation through estrogen receptors. This study clearly shows that STG has anti-inflammatory and estrogenic activities via metabolism of intestinal microflora.

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