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Jena, Germany

Food GmbH Jena

Jena, Germany

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Gramss G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.-D.,Food GmbH Jena
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2013

Several fungal species are notorious for the preferential acquisition of toxicants such as AsCdHgPbU in their wild-grown basidiomes, but it is not known how, or whether at all, mineral uptake is regulated. In this study, basidiomes of Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Hypholoma fasciculare were grown on Fagus sylvatica logs embedded in sand, uranium-overburden soil, and garden soil (SIO) at a lab scale to raise the accessible mineral resources 30 to >1,000 times over those available in the timber alone. Non-embedded logs and a field culture established on SIO served as controls. Concentrations of 22 minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry from microwave-digested samples of timber, soils, whole and dissected mushrooms, and basidiospores. It was the goal to determine whether mineral uptake rates vary simply with their concentration in the substrate or undergo selections which indicate the ability of metal sensing and optimizing/delimiting the quantity of (essential) elements on their passage from a substrate via basidiome to the basidiospores. It is shown that an underrepresented substrate mineral is up-concentrated to a more or less regulated and physiologically compatible mean, whereas a rising external mineral supply leads to uptake blockage by downregulation of the bioconcentration rate in the vicinity of an apparent mycelial saturation point. The resulting concentrations in whole K. mutabilis basidiomes of the essential metals, CaCoCuFeMgMn(Sr)Zn corresponded surprisingly with those in wheat grains which share the main metabolic pathways with fungi and whose metallome is believed to be out-regulated for an optimum and stress-free development. Concentrations of nonessential metals, too, fitted the range of those common crops, whereas KP reached the higher typical level of fungi. Minerals entering the lower stipe of the K. mutabilis basidiome were specifically enriched/diluted on a passage to the gills and once more abruptly up/down-concentrated at the basidium/sterigma/spore interface. Mineral concentrations of spores corresponded then again with those in wheat grains, with the metalloenzyme-linked CdCoCuFeMnNa(Ni) appearing moderately higher. It is concluded that the substrate/fungal interface may be the major site of metal sensing/selecting and uptake regulation. Concentration shifts obtained during the mineral transfer through the basidiome are then subject to ultimate corrections at the gill/spore interface. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Gramss G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.-D.,Food GmbH Jena
Agriculture (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Testing the quality of heavy-metal (HM) excluder plants from non-remediable metalliferous soils could help to meet the growing demands for food, forage, and industrial crops. Field cultures of the winter wheat cv. JB Asano were therefore established on re-cultivated uranium mine soil (A) and the adjacent non-contaminated soil (C). Twenty elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) from soils and plant sections of post-winter seedlings, anthesis-state, and mature plants to record within-plant levels of essential and toxic minerals during ripening and to estimate the (re)use of the soil-A herbage in husbandry and in HM-sensitive fermentations. Non-permissible HM loads (mg·kg-1·DW) of soil A in Cd, Cu, and Zn of 40.4, 261, and 2890, respectively, initiated the corresponding phytotoxic concentrations in roots and of Zn in shoots from the seedling state to maturity as well as of Cd in the foliage of seedlings. At anthesis, shoot concentrations in Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn and in As, Cr, Pb, and U had fallen to a mean of 20% to increase to 46% during maturation. The respective shoot concentrations in C-grown plants diminished from anthesis (50%) to maturity (27%). They were drastically up/down-regulated at the rachis-grain interface to compose the genetically determined metallome of the grain during mineral relocations from adjacent sink tissues. Soil A caused yield losses of straw and grain down to 47.7% and 39.5%, respectively. Nevertheless, pronounced HM excluder properties made Cd concentrations of 1.6–3.08 in straw and 1.2 in grains the only factors that violated hygiene guidelines of forage (1). It is estimated that grains and the less-contaminated green herbage from soil A may serve as forage supplement. Applying soil A grains up to 3 and 12 in Cd and Cu, respectively, and the mature straw as bioenergy feedstock could impair the efficacy of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Gramss G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.-D.,Food GmbH Jena
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Aims: Along a gradient of diminishing heavy metal (HM) concentrations formed by local inclusions of uranium mine soils into non-contaminated cropland, duplicate 1-m2 plots of 3 winter wheat cvs. (Akteur E, Brilliant A, and Bussard E) were established at 3 positions within a winter rye (cv. Visello) culture. It was the goal to determine permissible soil HM concentrations tolerated by cereal cvs. with variable excluder properties, and regulatory mechanisms which optimize the concentrations of essential minerals and radionuclide analogues in viable seeds from geologically related soils with diverging HM content. Methods: Total metal concentrations / nitrogen species in soils, shoots, and mature grains were determined by ICP-MS / spectrophotometry, and Kjeldahl analyses. Results: No non-permissible concentrations in grains of the 4 cereal cvs. were caused by elevated but aged total soil resources (mg kg-1 DW) in As (156); Cu (283); Mn (2,130); Pb (150); and in Zn (3,005) in the case of Bussard although CdCuZn elicited phytotoxicity symptoms. Uranium (41) contaminated grains of Akteur and Brilliant but not of Bussard and Visello due to their excluder properties. The concentration in Cd (41) had to be reduced to 20/2 mg kg-1 for the production by excluder cvs. of fodder/food grains. Cultivars excluding both HM and radionuclide analogues such as BaCsSr synchronously were not identified. Whereas plant tissue concentrations in the metalloprotein-associated elements CdCoCuMnNiZn rise and fall generally with Norg, grains of the wheat cvs. differed too little in Norg to designate variations in their metal acquisition rates solely as protein-regulated. Wheat grains confined nevertheless the concentrations in Cu to 11-14 mg kg-1 although the respective soil concentrations varied by factor 19. Grain deposition in CaFeMn(Zn) and in nuclides followed the same rules. Conclusions: It is hypothesized that cereals down-/up-regulate grain:soil transfer rates from soils with excessive/deficient trace metal resources to equip viable seeds with an optimum but not maximum in essential minerals. Positive correlations between metal concentrations in planta to those in soil can thereby be lost. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Gramss G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.-D.,Food GmbH Jena
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2014

Metalliferous uranium mine overburden soils integrated into arable land or stabilized by perennial rangeland plants evoke concern about the quality of crops and the exposure of grazing and thereby soil-ingesting (wildlife) herbivores to heavy metals (HM) and radionuclides. In a 2-year trial, thirteen annual and perennial forage and rangeland plants were thus potted on, or taken from, cultivated field soil of a metalliferous hot spot near Ronneburg (Germany). The content of soil and shoot tissues in 20 minerals was determined by ICP-MS to estimate HM (and uranium) toxicities to grazing animals and the plants themselves, and to calculate the long-term persistence of the metal toxicants (soil clean-up times) from the annual uptake rates of the plants. On Ronneburg soil elevated in As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, U, and Zn, the shoot mineral content of all test plants remained preferentially in the range of "normal plant concentrations" but reached up to the fourfold to sixfold in Mn, Ni, and Zn, the 1.45- to 21.5-fold of the forage legislative limit in Cd, and the 10- to 180-fold of common herb concentrations in U. Shoot and the calculated root concentrations in Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn accounted for phytotoxic effects at least to grasses and cereals. Based on WHO PTWI values for the tolerable weekly human Cd and Pb intake, the expanded Cd and Pb limits for forage, and reported rates of hay, roots, and adhering-soil ingestion, the tolerable daily intake rates of 0.65/11.6 mg in Cd/Pb by a 65 kg herbivore would be surpassed by the 11- to 27/0.7- to 4.7-fold across the year, with drastic consequences for winter-grazing and thereby high rates of roots and soil-ingesting animals. The daily intake of 5.3-31.5 mg of the alpha radiation emitter, U, may be less disastrous to short-lived herbivores. The annual phytoextraction rates of critical HM by the tested excluder crops indicate that hundreds to thousands of years are necessary to halve the HM and (long-lived) radionuclide load of Ronneburg soil, provided the herbage is harvested at all. It is concluded that the content in Cd/As, Cd, and Cu exclude herbage/Ronneburg soil from the commercial use as forage or pasture land soil for incalculable time spans. Caution is required, too, with the consumption of game. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Peksa V.,Charles University | Jahn M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Jahn M.,Leibniz Institute of Photonics Technology IPHT | Stolcova L.,Czech Technical University | And 9 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Considering both the potential effects on human health and the need for knowledge of food composition, quantitative detection of synthetic dyes in foodstuffs and beverages is an important issue. For the first time, we report a fast quantitative analysis of the food and drink colorant azorubine (E 122) in different types of beverages using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) without any sample preparation. Seven commercially available sweet drinks (including two negative controls) with high levels of complexity (sugar/artificial sweetener, ethanol content, etc.) were tested. Highly uniform Au "film over nanospheres" (FON) substrates together with use of Raman signal from silicon support as internal intensity standard enabled us to quantitatively determine the concentration of azorubine in each drink. SERS spectral analysis provided sufficient sensitivity (0.5-500 mg L-1) and determined azorubine concentration closely correlated with those obtained by a standard HPLC technique. The analysis was direct without the need for any pretreatment of the drinks or Au surface. Our SERS approach is a simple and rapid (35 min) prescan method, which can be easily implemented for a field application and for preliminary testing of food samples. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Gramss G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.-D.,Food GmbH Jena
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Growing demands in industrial and food crops do not allow for excluding extremely metalliferous to minerally deficient soils from productive use. Seed crops show a strict indigenous heavy metal (HM) control and should thus be able to generate minerally optimized seeds even on soils of highest and lowest (trace) metal resources. Field cultures of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were therefore, established on five soils of seriously diverging HM concentrations. Soils, seeds, and sections of mature plants were analyzed for 20 elements and several organics. In the light of extremes in the mineral supply it was the goal to reveal plant compensatory responses on the way to a dietarily and physiologically balanced seed composition in essential elements by identifying non-essential and chemically similar metals/metalloids. Normal to elevated resources (mgkg-1 DW) of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, U, and Zn in four clay-loam soils, and negligible ones in a sandy soil represented concentration spans of 5-109x for essential and non-essential minerals and of 475x in Cd. Seed:soil transfer factors diminishing proportionally on higher-concentrated soils by factors 4.5-109x reduced the respective spans of variation in seeds to 1.3-2.4x and to 15.9x in Cd. Non-essential minerals (As, Cd, Pb) were unambiguously distinguished from chemically similar essential ones and were actively incorporated into the seed metallome. The wide soil-HM variations did not interfere with protein content, its amino-acid composition, and sucrose/phenolics equivalents in seeds (range 1-1.4x) but incited disproportionately elevated/reduced mineral concentrations in tissues from root to pod. The narrow and inherited seed target metallome was then formed within the pod wall/seed interface with incisions in the metal (41-94%) and drastic increases in the N (580%) and P transfer (820%). The mean As, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn stock of seeds from the four clay-loam soils was surpassed by 49% in seeds from the organic- and mineral-poor sandy soil whose highly water-soluble mineral traces provoked extreme soil:seed transfers. It is concluded that pea seeds from soils of widest mineral spans concur with common food/feed hygiene standards and join cereals in the high stability of their mineral and organic composition and a stable dietary value. Seed crops recommend thus themselves for non-remediable metalliferous and extremely mineral-poor soils. Their HM uptake profile under standard conditions should be certified. Expanded permissible soil HM limits for cropland are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Gramss G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.-D.,Food GmbH Jena
Agronomy | Year: 2016

Extremes in soil mineral supply alter the metallome of seeds much less than that of their herbage. The underlying mechanisms of mineral homeostasis and the "puzzle of seed filling" are not yet understood. Field crops of wheat, rye, pea, and the mushroom Kuehneromyces mutabilis were established on a set of metalliferous uranium mine soils and alluvial sands. Mineral concentrations in mature plants were determined from roots to seeds (and to fungal basidiospores) by ICP-MS following microwave digestion. The results referred to the concentrations of soil minerals to illustrate regulatory breaks in their flow across the plant sections. Root mineral concentrations fell to a mean of 7.8% in the lower stem of wheat in proportions deviating from those in seeds. Following down- and up-regulations in the flow, the rachis/seed interface configured with cuts in the range of 1.6%-12% (AsPbUZn) and up-regulations in the range of 106%-728% (CuMgMnP) the final grain metallome. Those of pea seeds and basidiospores were controlled accordingly. Soil concentration spans of 9-109× in CuFeMnNiZn shrank thereby to 1.3-2× in seeds to reveal the plateau of the cultivar's desired target metallome. This was brought about by adaptations of the seed:soil transfer factors which increased proportionally in lower-concentrated soils. The plants thereby distinguished chemically similar elements (As/P; Cd/Zn) and incorporated even non-essential ones actively. It is presumed that high- and low-concentrated soils may impair the mineral concentrations of phloems as the donors of seed minerals. In an analytical and strategic top performance, essential and non-essential phloem constituents are identified and individually transferred to the propagules in precisely delimited quantities. © 2016 by the author.

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