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Kure A.,Tohoku University | Nakagawa K.,Tohoku University | Kondo M.,Tohoku University | Kato S.,Tohoku University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Luteolin is a naturally occurring flavone that reportedly has anti-inflammatory effects. Because most luteolin is conjugated following intestinal absorption, free luteolin is likely present at low levels in the body. Therefore, luteolin metabolites are presumably responsible for luteolin bioactivity. Here we confirmed that luteolin glucuronides, especially luteolin-3′-O-glucuronide, are the major metabolites found in plasma after oral administration of luteolin (aglycone) or luteolin glucoside (luteolin-7-O-glucoside) to rats. Luteolin-4′-O-glucuronide and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide were also detectable together with luteolin-3′-O-glucuronide in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. Next, we prepared these luteolin glucuronides and compared the anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin and luteolin glucuronides on gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. Luteolin glucuronides, especially luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, reduced expression of inflammatory genes in the cells, although their effects were weaker than those of luteolin. These results indicate that the active compound responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin in vivo would be luteolin glucuronide and/or residual luteolin. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Watanabe A.,Food Function Research Team | Watanabe A.,Tohoku University | Kumagai M.,Food Function Research Team | Mishima T.,Food Function Research Team | And 11 more authors.

Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-κB, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. © 2015 Watanabe et al. Source

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