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Dublin, Ireland

Feeney E.,Food For Health Ireland
Nutrition Bulletin

A variation exists in the ability of individuals to detect bitterness from a group of compounds called 'thiourea' which are found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables. This has led to people being categorised as either super, medium or non-tasters, and is due in part to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of a bitter taste receptor gene, taste receptor, type 2 (TAS2R)38. The density of fungiform papillae (FP) which houses the taste buds may also affect taster status, and may lead to supertasters being more sensitive to oral sensations such as burn from chillies and textural properties from fats, and even fibre in bread. The TAS2R38 genotype and FP density may contribute to food choice, particularly glucosinolates which are found in cruciferous vegetables containing a thiourea component. This paper will review the literature available on supertasting and how it may influence food choices. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 British Nutrition Foundation. Source

Gibney E.R.,Food For Health Ireland

Transcription, translation and subsequent protein modification represent the transfer of genetic information from the archival copy of DNA to the short-lived messenger RNA, usually with subsequent production of protein. Although all cells in an organism contain essentially the same DNA, cell types and functions differ because of qualitative and quantitative differences in their gene expression. Thus, control of gene expression is at the heart of differentiation and development. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and various RNA-mediated processes, are thought to influence gene expression chiefly at the level of transcription; however, other steps in the process (for example, translation) may also be regulated epigenetically. The following paper will outline the role epigenetics is believed to have in influencing gene expression. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Brennan L.,Food For Health Ireland
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Metabolomics is the study of metabolites present in biological samples such as biofluids, tissue/cellular extracts and culture media. Measurement of these metabolites is achieved through use of analytical techniques such as NMR and mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography. Combining metabolomic data with multivariate data analysis tools allows the elucidation of alterations in metabolic pathways under different physiological conditions. Applications of NMR-based metabolomics have grown in recent years and it is now widely used across a number of disciplines. The present review gives an overview of the developments in the key steps involved in an NMR-based metabolomics study. Furthermore, there will be a particular emphasis on the use of NMR-based metabolomics in nutrition research. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Bleiel J.,Food For Health Ireland
International Dairy Journal

Functional foods have become the corner stone of food innovation in the past few years. All big food companies are investing in functional foods because the mega trends in society seem to require healthy food with added benefits to improve the health, wellness and quality of life of people. The food companies have not only adapted their strategies and their communication to the health awareness and request of consumers but they have also changed their innovation process. And yet, there are more failures of functional food products out in the markets than there are global successes. The analysis of this phenomenon shows that the invention of new food products has to start in the mind of the consumers. A consequent orientation at consumer insights, translated into relevant, noticeable benefits, added to trustworthy and adequate brands, may be one potential route to market success. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Mills S.,Food For Health Ireland
Annual review of food science and technology

There is an increased desire for sophisticated foods, whereby consumers harbor higher expectations of health-promoting benefits above basic nutrition. Moreover, there is a move from the adulteration of foods with chemical preservatives toward biopreservation. Such expectations have led scientists to identify novel approaches to satisfy both demands, which utilize bacteriocin and peptide-based solutions. The best known examples of biopreservation involve bacteriocins. However, with the exception of nisin, bacteriocins have received limited use in the food industry. Peptides can be added to foods to improve consumer health. Some of the best known examples are angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides, which inhibit ACE, a key enzyme involved in blood pressure (BP) regulation. To be effective, these peptides must be bioavailable, but by their nature, peptides are degraded by digestion with proteolytic enzymes. This review critically discusses the use and potential of peptides and bacteriocins in food systems in terms of safety, quality, and improvement of human health. Source

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