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Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Gaudette N.J.,Food Processing Development Center | Johnston S.P.,Food Processing Development Center
Meat Science | Year: 2017

The effects of high pressure processing (HPP; 600 MPa for 3 min at 8 °C) on the quality and shelf life of reduced sodium naturally-cured wieners was studied. HPP did not negatively impact processing characteristics and assisted in extending shelf life of all wiener treatments up to a 12 week storage period. At week 8, HPP wieners received higher acceptability scores, indicating HPP can effectively extend the sensory quality of products, including sodium reduced formulations containing natural forms of nitrite. Substitution of 50% NaCl with modified KCl had negative effect on textural characteristics of conventionally cured wieners but not those processed with celery powder as a source of nitrite. Celery powder favorably affected hydration of textural properties of wieners, and consumer acceptability of juiciness and texture was higher compared to nitrite. Sodium reduction, independent of curing agent, negatively impacted flavor acceptability, while only nitrite containing reduced sodium wieners scored significantly lower than both regular salt wieners for texture, juiciness and saltiness. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Gaudette N.J.,Food Processing Development Center | Klassen M.,Canadian Cattlemens Association and 180
Meat Science | Year: 2016

The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85. °C for 40 s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7 days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3 days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Han J.(J.),Food Processing Development Center | Janz J.A.M.,Food Processing Development Center | Gerlat M.,Consumer Product Testing Center
Food Research International | Year: 2010

With nearly two million North Americans suffering gluten intolerance, the objective of this study was to develop gluten-free, pulse-based cracker snacks that exploit the anti-allergenic and health-enhancing nature of pulses ingredients. Nine commercially available pulse fractions (chickpea, green and red lentil, yellow pea, pinto and navy bean flours and pea protein, starch and fibre isolates) were evaluated in a model cracker formulation. Early prototype crackers exhibited light colour, good flavour, and crisp texture. Based on its acceptability data, processing characteristics and consultation with an industry partner, the chickpea cracker formulation was advanced to a commercial-scale processing trial. The physical and nutritional characteristics of these pulse crackers were similar to existing products on the market. The products were scored highly during consumer acceptance testing. Interestingly, the % daily values per serving of iron in the chickpea crackers were 3-6 times higher than existing products. Based on these findings, pulse-based, gluten-free crackers have good potential for both consumer appeal and imparting health benefits. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Du L.,University of Alberta | Khiari Z.,University of Alberta | Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Betti M.,University of Alberta
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Gelatins were prepared from chicken and turkey heads in a series of batch extractions at 2 different temperatures (50 and 60°C), and their composition and functional properties were evaluated. Gelatin yield from chicken and turkey heads was 52.29 and 62.76%, respectively, on a dry weight basis relative to the total collagen content in the raw materials. The gel strength of turkey gelatins varied from 332.7 to 368.4 g, which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chicken gelatins. Both chicken and turkey head gelatins had high solubility at acidic and alkaline pH values. However, turkey head gelatins showed better emulsifying and foaming properties compared with chicken gelatins. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Jarpa-Parra M.,University of Alberta | Bamdad F.,University of Alberta | Wang Y.,University of Alberta | Tian Z.,University of Alberta | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Response surface methodology was used to optimize alkaline extraction of protein from lentil flour to maximize both protein content and yield. Solid/solvent ratio and pH were the significant factors that determined protein extraction efficiency. At the optimized condition of pH 9.0 and solid/solvent ratio of 1:10(g:mL), a yield of 14.5g of protein extract/100g of flour was obtained with a protein content of 82g/100g at (22°C) after 1h of extraction. The impact of extraction pH on the molecular structures and functionalities of lentil protein was investigated. Increasing the extraction pH to 10 caused partial protein hydrolysis and unfolding as suggested by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, leading to improved protein solubility and gelling property. Environmental pH influenced protein solubility and surface charge, and subsequently the gelling and foaming properties. The foaming capacity was especially strong, comparable to whey and egg proteins. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Wang H.,Food Processing Development Center | Janz J.A.M.,Food Processing Development Center
Meat Science | Year: 2013

The study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the combined effect of blade tenderization and canola oil emulsion injection on processing yield and eating quality-related parameters of selected loin and hip muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL, biceps femoris, BF and semimembranosus, SM) from over thirty month (OTM) cattle.Canola oil emulsion injection significantly reduced shear force, increased sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness, and made connective tissue less perceptible. Targeted levels of omega-3 fatty acids can be achieved by the inclusion of canola oil containing marinades/emulsions at levels sufficient to retain omega-3 fatty acids in cooked product. All consumer acceptability attributes of OTM muscles were improved with the use of canola oil emulsion injection treatments without compromising colour although slightly decreasing oxidative stability of BF muscle. Injection of omega-3 oil emulsions in combination with blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to enrich injected products in essential fatty acids and enhance eating quality of OTM beef. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Gaudette N.J.,Food Processing Development Center
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Producing high-quality processed meats that contain reduced amounts of sodium chloride is a major challenge facing industry owing to the importance of sodium chloride toward the functional, microbial stability and sensory properties of these products. In order to create reduced sodium alternatives, a number of commercial salt replacers and flavor enhancers have entered the market; however, their ability to be applied in processed meats requires investigation. In this study, two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer (Fonterra™ Savoury Powder - SP) were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of turkey sausages. Functionality via instrumental measures (yield, purge loss, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture), safety (microbiological assessment) and consumer acceptability were obtained on all samples. RESULTS: All non-control treatments resulted in products with sodium chloride contents below Canada's Health Check™ Program target for processed meats. There was no detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with OF60 sea salt replacers. Sodium reduction had no negative effect on the shelf life of the turkey sausages with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer acceptability for all attributes did not differ significantly, except for aftertaste, which scored lowest for OF45 compared with the control (regular NaCl content). CONCLUSION: This work demonstrated that salt replacers could potentially substitute for NaCl in smoked turkey sausages; however, further flavor optimization may be required to suppress undesirable levels of bitterness elicited by some of these ingredients. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Gaudette N.J.,Food Processing Development Center
Meat Science | Year: 2014

Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of restructured hams. Product functionality and safety were assessed using instrumental measures (yield, purge, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture) and microbiological assessment. Sensory attributes were evaluated using consumer sensory panelists.All alternative formulations resulted in products with sodium contents below the Health CheckTM Program guidelines, without detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with sea salt replacers (OF45, OF60). Sodium reduction had no effect on the shelf life of the cooked ham with up to 60days of refrigerated storage. Consumer hedonics for flavor and aftertaste were lower for OF45 and OF60 compared to control, suggesting that these salt replacers may not be appropriate for inclusion in these products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Gaudette N.J.,Food Processing Development Center | Johnston S.P.,Food Processing Development Center
Meat Science | Year: 2016

The combined effect of partial salt replacement with modified potassium chloride and high pressure processing (600 MPa for 3 min at 8 °C) on the quality and shelf life of naturally-cured restructured hams was investigated over a 12 week storage period. Instrumental, microbiological and consumer acceptability testing was performed.A partial salt substitution with modified potassium chloride adversely affected textural and water binding characteristics of hams and led to a decrease in the consumer acceptance compared to regular salt hams. Celery powder used as a curing agent had beneficial effects on water holding and moisture retention and improved bind of restructured hams; however the consumer acceptability of flavor and aftertaste received significantly lower scores compared to nitrite. No significant differences in all consumer acceptability parameters resulted for hams subjected to HPP compared to non-HPP for all storage periods indicating that HPP can effectively extend shelf-life of restructured ham without compromising eating quality. © 2016 .


Pietrasik Z.,Food Processing Development Center | Janz J.A.M.,Food Processing Development Center
Food Research International | Year: 2010

The influence of pea flour, starch, and fiber on functionality, quality, and acceptability of low fat bologna was investigated. Full fat (HF) and low fat (LF) bolognas were compared to low fat formulations supplemented with wheat flour (a standard binder) or one of the pea ingredients. Fat reduction resulted in poor texture and binding, but this was overcome by binder addition. Use of pea starch and fibre restored texture profile values of low fat samples to HF levels. All pea ingredients lowered cooking and purge losses, and increased water holding capacity compared to LF. Consumer acceptance of low fat bolognas extended with pea starch and fibre fractions was equivalent to HF. Pea flour samples were rated lowest; texture and flavor were substantial issues. In general, pea starch and fiber performed as well as wheat flour in low fat bologna, with little change in functionality and without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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