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Bakirci G.T.,Food Control and Research Laboratory | Yaman Acay D.B.,Food Control and Research Laboratory | Bakirci F.,Food Control and Research Laboratory | Otles S.,Ege University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey. A total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. The samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. The analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) confirmed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a multi-residue extraction procedure (the QuEChERS method). The results were evaluated according to maximum residue limits (MRLs) for each commodity and pesticide by Turkish Regulation. All pomegranate, cauliflower and cabbage samples were pesticides-free. A total of 754 samples contained detectable residues at or below MRLs, and 48 (8.4%) of the fruit samples and 83 (9.8%) of the vegetable samples contained pesticide residues above MRLs. MRL values were most often exceeded in arugula, cucumber, lemon, and grape commodities. All detected pesticides in apricot, carrot, kiwifruit and leek were below the MRLs. Acetamiprid, chlorpyriphos and carbendazim were the most detected pesticide residues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


An extraction and analytical method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables has been developed. The method includes extraction with a pressurised liquid solvent containing a mixture of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and toluene, and identification/quantification of pesticides using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS). Validation studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of the method for the determination of 71 different pesticides and metabolites in tomato, cucumber, pepper, spinach, zucchini, grape, cherry, peach and apricot. Matrix-matched calibration curves were applied and correlation coefficients (r2) came out to be greater than 0.99. Limit of quantification (LOQ) values of the active substances were found to be lower than the maximum residue limits (MRL) according to regulations in Turkey. The recovery values were found to be between 70% and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20%. Based on these results, the proposed method is fast, cheaper, rugged and gives quantitative results with no additional clean-up steps. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


An extraction and analytical method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables has been developed. The method includes extraction with a pressurised liquid solvent containing a mixture of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and toluene, and identification/quantification of pesticides using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS). Validation studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of the method for the determination of 71 different pesticides and metabolites in tomato, cucumber, pepper, spinach, zucchini, grape, cherry, peach and apricot. Matrix-matched calibration curves were applied and correlation coefficients (r(2)) came out to be greater than 0.99. Limit of quantification (LOQ) values of the active substances were found to be lower than the maximum residue limits (MRL) according to regulations in Turkey. The recovery values were found to be between 70% and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20%. Based on these results, the proposed method is fast, cheaper, rugged and gives quantitative results with no additional clean-up steps.

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