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Dingel A.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry | Matissek R.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2015

Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPDE) as well as 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol, GE) can occur as undesirable foodborne toxicants in fats/oils and related products. Because of their significant toxicity, it is a worldwide aim to minimize levels of 3-MCPDE and GE, and several research programmes are currently trying to gain further understanding of their formation. Here we report on the non-formation of 3-MCPDE and GE during the deep frying of potato crisps in large-scale industrial production using high-oleic sunflower oils (HOSO). Samples of potato crisps and corresponding frying oils were taken in nine series at several frying time points and subsequently analysed by GC–MS. The analysed samples (crisps and frying oils) showed very low levels of both contaminants varying between 0.10 and 0.85 mg/kg fat for 3-MCPDE and between 0.09 (LOQ) and 0.91 mg/kg fat for GE. The results indicate no significant change of either 3-MCPDE or GE levels during frying. Thus, the endogenous formation of 3-MCPDE and GE during frying of potato crisps using HOSO and typical large-scale conditions can be excluded. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source


Raters M.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry | Matissek R.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

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