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Dingel A.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry | Matissek R.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2015

Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPDE) as well as 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol, GE) can occur as undesirable foodborne toxicants in fats/oils and related products. Because of their significant toxicity, it is a worldwide aim to minimize levels of 3-MCPDE and GE, and several research programmes are currently trying to gain further understanding of their formation. Here we report on the non-formation of 3-MCPDE and GE during the deep frying of potato crisps in large-scale industrial production using high-oleic sunflower oils (HOSO). Samples of potato crisps and corresponding frying oils were taken in nine series at several frying time points and subsequently analysed by GC–MS. The analysed samples (crisps and frying oils) showed very low levels of both contaminants varying between 0.10 and 0.85 mg/kg fat for 3-MCPDE and between 0.09 (LOQ) and 0.91 mg/kg fat for GE. The results indicate no significant change of either 3-MCPDE or GE levels during frying. Thus, the endogenous formation of 3-MCPDE and GE during frying of potato crisps using HOSO and typical large-scale conditions can be excluded. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Raters M.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry | Matissek R.,Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2014

As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.


PubMed | Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2013

Within this research project, the LCI (Lebensmittelchemisches Institut des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Swarenindustrie e. V.) conducted systematic studies to determine the thermal stability of the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1, as the available literature provides contradictory data. Firstly, the said mycotoxins in pure form were subjected to thermal treament. Secondly, tests were conducted to determine the influence of certain matrix substances, including carbohydrates and proteins, on the thermal decomposition behaviour of the mycotoxins. As a result it can be said that OTA seems to be stable up to 180 C; however aflatoxin B1 was almost completely degraded at heating temperatures of 160 C and above. In several model assays it could further be shown that the degradation of mycotoxins is improved by the existence of certain matrix compounds.


PubMed | Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2013

The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and chocolates has been reported. There is no previously published data available on the source and development of OTA producing moulds and OTA itself in cocoa,i.e. where the mycotoxin enters the cocoa supply chain.A selection of fresh and undamaged cocoa pods from various growing regions was examined for mycotoxin OTA content. In addition, a small selection of damaged or mouldy cocoa pods was included in the examination. It was shown that the ripening phase of healthy cocoa pods from the tree up to being harvested was not a critical period for the occurrence of the mycotoxin OTA. The mycotoxin OTA was not detectable in any of the analysed cocoa pods.


PubMed | Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2013

The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of a group of mycotoxins known as type B trichothecenes and is particularly formed by the mould speciesFusarium graminearum andFusarium culmorum. The frequency of the occurrence of DON in certain raw materials and the concentrations found make it one of the worlds most significant mycotoxin contaminants. Positive findings of the toxin especially have been established in cereal-based foods, as well as in oilseeds.The main objective of this study was to set up a current situation assessment of the possible occurrence of deoxynivalenol in cocoa and cocoa products. As there was no analytical method for determining DON in cocoa and cocoa products, a special method was developed. The applicability and consistency of the method was confirmed by performing recovery assays on various cocoa products. A special post-column derivatisation procedure was developed to increase selectivity and raise sensitivity by a factor of 80.The method was used to test 230 samples for possible DON content, ranging from cocoa beans to cocoa bean shells, nibs, cocoa liquor and cocoa powders through to finished cocoa-based products. The results suggest that DON may occasionally occur in cocoa beans in very low concentrations.


PubMed | Food Chemistry Institute LCI of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2013

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites which can form on various foodstuffs through the growth of certain fungi. Ochratoxin A (OTA) and the aflatoxins B1 B2, G1 and G2 have been detected in low concentrations in cocoa and cocoa products. As regards the question of in what stages of the cocoa production process a contamination with the mycotoxin-producing moulds and the formation of mycotoxins takes place, it is assumed that in the case of cocoa the contamination is not concerning the individual beans but the fermentation units.A model test was carried out to provide information on the process by which a possible carryover of the above-mentioned mycotoxins to cocoa beans occurs during the fermentation process. For this purpose fresh cocoa beans were left to soak in an artificial mycotoxin-containing fermentation solution. The mycotoxin levels in the cocoa beans were regularly determined over a period of 12 days. New findings were made as regards the migration of mycotoxins during the fermentation process. We interpret the divergent uptake behaviour of the mycotoxins to indicate that the transport of OTA and that of aflatoxins does not take place in the same manner. This is possibly caused by chemico-physical effects, such as the different polarities of the mycotoxins.

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